Led a strike of the United Automobile Workers who walked out of GM under Truman
John L. Lewis
Head of the United Mine Workers. Demanded more than 18.5 cent per-hour wage increase. Demanded improved safety regulations, health and welfare fund for union members. Strike followed these demands as plant owners opposed this. Government seized the mines and then got most of the union's demands to be met
Employment Act of 1946
Set up 3-member Council of Economic Advisers "to make appraisals of the economy and advise the president in an annual economic report. A new congressional Joint Committee on the Economic Report would propose legislation". Liberals had proposed federal efforts toward "full employment" but conservatives were able to gain a compromise (Truman)
Taft-Harley Labor Act of 1947
Banned closed shop, permitted union shop unless banned by STATE law. Had provisions against "unfair" union practices ex. Secondary boycotts, jurisdictional strikes, "featherbedding", refusal to bargain in good faith, contributing to political campaigns. Union leaders had to take oath saying they were not Communist. Employers could sue unions for breaking contracts, petition National Labor Relations Board for votes for or against use of specific unions as collective-bargaining agents, speak freely during union campaigns. Forbade strikes by federal employees, imposed "cooling-off" period of 80 days for any strike president thought was dangerous to the national health or safety (Truman)
Strike by one union to exclude another from a given company or field
Paying for work not done
Operation Dixie (Driven by the CIO)
Drive to win unions a more secure foothold in the south, in which many states used the Taft-Hartley bill's "right-to-work" laws
National Security Act (1947)
Showed bipartisan cooperation. Created National Military Establishment, headed by secretary of defense with sub-cabinet departments of army, navy, air force. Also included National Security Council - made up of president, heads of defense departments, secretary of state. Made Joint Chiefs of Staff Permanent. Established CIA to coordinate global intelligence-gathering activities
Civil Rights During the 1940s
Extreme racism of Nazis, Italian fascists, Japanese imperialists → all emphasized the need for greater equality in the United States. Americans were competing with the Soviets in Africa, and Communism preached greater equality while the U.S. had shown consistent racial segregation → Soviets used this and compared U.S. to the Nazis. Truman was at first impartial but soon grew to approach the concept such that he hosted a delegation of civil rights activists in 1946. Extreme racism of Nazis, Italian fascists, Japanese imperialists → all emphasized the need for greater equality in the United States. Americans were competing with the Soviets in Africa, and Communism preached greater equality while the U.S. had shown consistent racial segregation → Soviets used this and compared U.S. to the Nazis. Truman was at first impartial but soon grew to approach the concept such that he hosted a delegation of civil rights activists in 1946
Committee on Civil Rights
Appointed by Truman to to "investigate violence against African Americans and to recommend preventative measures"
Truman's Executive Orders
Truman banned racial discrimination in hiring of federal employees. 4 days later he banned racial segregation in the armed forces → air force and navy did so quickly but not the army
Truman's revision of the New Deal including more moderate liberalism and the pledge of human rights. Proposals that became law were mostly extensions of New Deal programs but included:. Higher min. wage. Expansion of Social Security coverage to workers not included in the original bill. Extension of rent controls. Increased farm subsidies. Sizable slum-clearance and public-housing program. Coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats prevented any major changes in domestic policy
House Un-American Activities Committee
Since 1938 kept putting up "accusations about supposed subversives in the federal government"
Civil Service Commission
Truman set up procedure for employee loyalty program in the federal gov. so that every person entering federal service would be subject to a background check. Over 2,000 people resigned and 212 dismissed for doubtful loyalty.
President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, he had served in several government departments. Whittaker Chambers a former Soviet agent accused Hiss of giving him secret documents 10 yrs. Earlier when Chambers was a spy. Hiss sued for libel, he was indicted and then convicted after the first mistrial. Charged with perjury, but convicted of lying about espionage even though he could not technically be tried for that at this point.
Smith Act of 1940
Outlawed any conspiracy to advocate the overthrow of the government. "In 1949 eleven top leaders of the Communist party in the United States were convicted under" this act. Supreme Court upheld this because of "clear and present danger"
Joseph R. McCarthy
Claimed the State Dept. was infested with Communists and he had a list of their names. But he never actually uncovered a single Communist in the gov. McCarthy used the war against Korean Communists in the 1950s to expand his supporters.
McCarran International Security Act
Made it unlawful to "combine, conspire, or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to...the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship". Truman vetoed it but Congress overrode his veto. Communist + Communist-front organizations had to register with the attorney general. Aliens who had belonged to totalitarian parties were barred from admission to the United States
GI Bill of Rights 1944
Created Veterans Administration. Included provisions for mustering out pay. Unemployment pay for veterans for one year. Preference for gov. jobs. Loans for home construction. Access to gov. hospitals. Generous subsidies for college or professional training
Education in the 1940s
As veterans began to go to college with veterans accounting for 40% of all college students by 1949, the overall number of people attending college in America increased so that by 1949 the U.S. could "boast the world's best-educated workforce". GI Bill allowed many people to go to college who would previously have been unable to pay, this helped dissolve class barriers. "Most colleges and universities after the war remained racially segregated". Much harder for blacks to get a good education at colleges. For those who were accepted, they were often still restricted from extracurricular and social activities
"Brassy New York developer, led the suburban revolution". Created Levittowns of identical, mass-produced, affordable houses especially in Long Island, PA, NJ. Long Island Levittown only accepted Caucasian residents
Many white Americans moved out of cities into suburbs as African-Americans moved into northern and Midwestern cities following WWII
Great Black Migration
Blacks ended up in poverty in urban locations as they moved to the north in hopes of finding new jobs there
Gingrich announced that liberalism was dead and this was the end of an era for Democrats. Wanted to dismantle "corrupt liberal welfare state". Promoted Contract with America - ten-point contract made for big anti-government program. - Inexperience of Republican politicians hurt Gingrich's vision, and overall the Senate was never illusioned by him. Gingrich was "too ambitious, too slick, too aggressive, too rambunctious". Gingrich scared people a little bit so that people wanted a return to the status quo
Personal Responsibility and Work Act of 1966
turned over major federal welfare programs to states, which would receive federal grants to fund them. The bill also limited the amount of time during which a person could receive welfare benefits funded by federal money and required that at least half of a state's welfare recipients have jobs or be enrolled in job-training programs by 2002.
In the 1990s, lots of prosperity. "The 'new economy' was centered on high flying computer, software, telecommunications, and Internet firms, and on the whiz-kid techie entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, and stock-market promoters who capitalized on their overhyped potential"
Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board under Clinton who astutely handled the finances of the 1990s and warned about the eventual bust of the economy although even he admitted the boom-and-bust cycle might break.
Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995)
White company sued on the basis of "reverse discrimination" because a company that favored disadvantaged workers hired Latinos over them when they had a lower bid. Supreme Court ruled these programs had to be "narrowly tailored" to serve a "compelling national interest" - shows Court's suspicion of race-based companies
Hopwood v. Texas
Considering race to achieve a diverse student body at U Texas was "not a compelling interest under the 14th amendment"
Ruled out race, sex, ethnicity, and national origin as criteria for preferring any group
Whitewater Development Corporation
A fraudulent corporation which Clinton was associated with, discredited him.
Postindustrial Economy of 1960s-1970s
Began servicing people the professional-service industries and so people largely started to move into metropolitan areas. Professional-service in telecommunications and information processing were especially popular
Approved in 1994 in California. Denied illegal immigrants access to public schools, nonemergency health care, other social services
California voters passed a referendum to end bilingual education
New Conservatives of the 1990s
More ideological, more libertarian, more partisan, more impatient. Abhorred excesses of social liberalism. Attacked affirmative-action programs "designed to redress historic injustices committed against women and minorities". Powerful Republicans and other groups in the 1990s fought to "roll back government programs giving preferences to specified social groups"
Organized the Christian Coalition in 1989 to follow in the footsteps of the Moral Majority. Encouraged religious conservatives to vote, run for public office, and support only those candidates who shared the organization's views. Wanted voters not to give support to anyone who gave less than an ironclad oath of morality. Stood with the Republican party, in 1994 70% of religious conservatives voted Republican
Recession of early 1990s
Prolonged economic recession began in 1990. Longest recession since the Great Depression. 20% of workers unemployed at one point or another in 1991. White-collar workers were also victims of this recession. Country didn't have a plan for demobilization even though the Cold War had ended and much of the outline for the military came from the designs for it. Federal Reserve Board started cutting interest rates. Bush was criticized for not handling the Recession well, not really showing the confidence or optimism that Reagan and others gave the people
African-American Supreme Court Justice nominated by Bush. He was from the South and held very conservative views, complained that civil rights leaders complained too much. Anita Hill accused him of sexual harassment.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Clinton pushed to pass this, making North America the largest free-trade area in the world. Harsh criticism for lowering tariffs, many people were convinced jobs would start being outsourced as American products began to compete more equally with the world market
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969)
Ordered a quick end to segregation as public schools in Mississippi and tried to maintain it
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)
Ruled school systems must bus students out of their neighborhoods if necessary to achieve racial integration
Milliken v. Bradley (1974)
Desegregation plans in Detroit that required the transfer of students from the inner city to suburbs were unconstitutional
Name didn't catch on but Nixon tried for it, the program was to "start resources and power flowing back from Washington to the states and to the people"
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
1973 - refused to give oil to any countries helping Israel, U.S. was helping Israel
When Nixon encouraged Federal Reserve Board to reduce money supply by raising interest rates and the stock market collapsed
Silent Spring (1962)
Book by Rachel Carson scared people about environmental damage. Led to the creation of the EPA and the Endangered Species Act under Nixon
Former CIA agent and security chief of the Committee to Re-elect the President. Admitted Nixon's part in Watergate
Saturday Night Massacre (October 1973)
Nixon brought to court over the "Nixon tapes" which could hold incriminating evidence for Watergate. He ordered the special prosecutor Archibald Cox fired by his attorney general Elliot Richardson - Richardson resigned as did the Deputy Attorney General rather than complete the task
United States v. Richard Nixon (1974)
Nixon had to surrender the tapes. Congress soon began to discuss charges of impeachment. It was soon discovered that segments of the recordings were missing from the tapes, Nixon's secretary claimed it to be an accident but it was clearly intentional
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Founded 1960. Integrated student activists who worked with King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference to "broaden the civil rights movement"
Congress of Racial Equality put freedom riders on buses to test and see if segregation had actually disappeared - the result was great attacks on these freedom riders and the realization that desegregation had done very little to the culture of the South. Demonstrators continued in these attempts, "generating new respect and support for their cause". JFK told his aide to get the freedom riders to stop (he was technically preoccupied with the Berlin wall issue). Truman (ex-President) was also against the freedom riders
Governor Ross Barnet
1962 - refused James Meredith (African-American whose grandfather was a slave) admittance to University of Mississippi. Robert Kennedy intervened, dispatched federal marshals who were attacked by white mob so federal troops had to be sent in. Meredith was finally registered a few days after the federal troops intervened and after 2 deaths
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Used many violent forms of breaking up peaceful black protests led by MLK. His tactics enraged people across the nation because they were being used against peaceful protesters
JFK on Civil Rights
In 1963 JFK finally decided to speak out against racism and segregation, especially at the urging of brother Robert. Advocated a civil rights bill that would "end discrimination in public facilities, desegregate public schools, and protect African-American voters". Southern Conservatives fought passionately against this bill. Traditionalists continued to defy integration in the Deep South including Governor George Wallace (stood in doorway of U Alabama). JFK appealed to the morals of the American people, asking how we can allow free Americans to be treated the way that African-Americans are and asking if any whites would be content to have the color of their skin changed, would they be able to stand the hardships of black life?
August 28, 1963
March on the Mall in Washington, D.C. with 200,000 blacks and whites marching and singing "We Shall Overcome". MLK gave his "I Have a Dream" speech
Southern Necessity for Integration in mid-60s
Corporate and civic leaders in large southern cities began to promote civil rights advancements to keep the economy moving for fear that the continued protests of blacks would cause a serious economic downturn
Voting Rights Act of 1965
(Johnson) Ensured all citizens the right to vote. Suspended civil literacy tests and other ways of excluding blacks. 250,000 new African-Americans registered by the end of 1965
Predominantly black and poor community in LA "exploded in a frenzy of riots and looting" with many deaths, etc. Similar race riots ensued in Chicago, Cleveland, 40 other cities (summer 1966). Lots of violent tactics for civil rights by blacks themselves in northern urban communities. "Looting, rioting, and burning" ensued. Blacks instigated damage upon themselves because they could not stand their destitution
Led the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee starting in 1966. Made "the separatist philosophy of black power the official objective of the organization and ousted whites from the organization". Soon moved on to Black Panther Party
Argued for violence in the protest against whites, he was committed to the organization he established to establish "alliances between African Americans and the nonwhite people of the world". He was a disciple of Elijah Muhammad - Muslim leader in the U.S. Malcolm argued his extremism was justified because of the discrimination against blacks for so long
Black Power Movement
Gave African Americans greater pride in their heritage. Caused attention to focus on poor-inner city blacks by the guidance of King and other black leaders. Not just about race, about providing "jobs and income for the poor"
Feminine domesticity was thriving in the postwar 1950s. Life's ideal woman was innocent, pretty, loyal, and took care of all aspects of the domestic sphere heartily. Baby-boom only reinforced the idea that women belonged in the home. Women were expected to return directly to the domestic sphere once the soldiers returned from WWII, they were expected to forget the careers they had held temporarily and resume their motherly duties
Religion in the 1950s
Religion boomed in the 1950s. President Eisenhower only joined a church in 1953 but characterized himself as very religious. The government added "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954. In 1955 it became mandatory that all currency bear the statement "In God We Trust". People thought religion would be helpful in the fight against "godless communism". People wanted religion to reassure them that their prosperity was righteous, they did not want to be condemned for their sins, by attending church, people were able to rid themselves of any guilt for having such good lives
Norman Vincent Peale
Reverend who "sold" "good news" religion. Wrote The Power of Positive Thinking. Praised the importance of a positive attitude
Theory that Peale's simplistic positive-thinking perspective on religion should really only be used to promote "sociability or a sense of 'belonging'
Advocated neo-orthodoxy. Didn't like self-assurance and material success, thought people needed "the reality of pain, a pain 'caused by love and responsibility' for the well-being of the entire human race". Thought spiritual peace should be a far more prevalent goal than material wealth
The Affluent Society (1958)
By John Galbraith. Argued that the continued economic growth would provide resolutions for prevalent social issues. Reminded everyone that poverty was still a large issue in the U.S.
The Crack in the Picture Window (1956)
By John Keats. Called suburbia a "homogenous, postwar Hell" - talked about the mediocrity and monotony that was rampant in America
The Lonely Crowd (1950)
By David Riesman. During the 19th and early 20th century, people had been "inner-directed", driving themselves based on a set of personal morals/values/goals that would keep them on course. In the 1950s, people became "other-driven", afraid to be different and desiring above all else to be liked as they tried to appeal to employers and all those around them
Death of a Salesman (1949)
American Dream is deceptive, material wealth isn't everything, leads to loneliness. People at this time think it only matters to be "popular", but this does not help people to feel fulfilled and often leaves them lonely and depressed because they spend so much time putting up a false front trying to appeal to everyone and not being themselves.
Invisible Man (1952)
Showed a black man "imprisoned on privacy" - showing the detrimental effects of individualism and trying to form one's personality to meet the ideals of others. Books were coming to show many protagonists who were depressed or restless with the life they were living because they were trying to be "popular" in a world that was uninterested in them and refused to respect them because everyone was only interested in him or herself
Artist whose paintings showed isolated individuals "melancholy, anonymous, motionless"
Young artists who thought "desire for pure freedom" and the "liberation of self-expression" were the most important aspects of life. They rebelled against the monotony of middle-class life. More interested in transforming themselves than transforming the world. "Anarchic gaiety of the Beats played an important role in preparing for the more widespread youth revolt of the 1960s"
Youth Culture in the 1950s
Teenagers in the 1950s had not known hard-times, they accepted prosperity as a given and took no cares with their consumption. Created a whole new market for products now that teenagers had money to spend. Values were still instilled strongly, and the college students of the postwar era were at one point labeled "the silent generation" - content to move forward through college and into corporate lifestyles
Forbade any President serving more than 2 terms
Truman's policy. "Conservative when it comes to money and liberal when it comes to human beings". High priority of budget-cutting. Abolished Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Ended wage and price controls. Reduced farm-price subsidies
Administration formulated tax reductions that resembled the Republican programs of the 1920s in providing benefits mainly to corporations and wealthy individuals. Federal Reserve Board reinforced administration by tightening credit and raising interest rates to avert inflation. Business slump soon followed, which make it hard to balance the budget as government revenues were reduced. Eisenhower's fiscal and monetary policies thereafter became more flexible. Gov. came to see credits and deficits as "countercyclical" methods. Low-income housing continued to be built with federal funds but on a much-reduced scale. Farm-related aid programs also expanded under Ike
Transportation Improvements Under Eisenhower
St. Lawrence Seaway - Opened Great Lakes to oceangoing ships. New highway construction act authorized federal gov. to put up 90% of the cost of building 42,500 miles of interstate highways to serve the needs of commerce and defense. Devotion to automobile industry began to hurt railroads
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Convicted of transmitting atomic secrets to the Russians, Eisenhower denied clemency for them because they "may have condemned to death tens of millions of innocent people"
Warren Court (1953-1969)
Became an important agency of social and political change through the 1960s. 1957 - case narrowly construed Smith Act of 1940 so that it would aim only at those advocating "revolutionary" action, not just conspirators. Teaching revolutionary doctrine in the abstract was now not a crime. Decisions setting rigid standards on admissible evidence "made the Smith Act a dead letter"
Eisenhower on Civil Rights
Eisenhower wanted civil rights but he thought that it should be more the responsibility of state/local governments and he believed that laws would do nothing to change peoples' beliefs, which was necessary. This meant leadership for civil rights ended up coming from the judicial branch of the federal government
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
"Supreme Court ruled that a separate black law school in Texas was not equal in quality to the states' whites-only school. The Court ordered the state to remedy the situation"
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Desegregated public schools. Court then argued a year later that racial integration should be more efficient
Middle and upper-class versions of the KKK that spread across the region and enrolled 250,000 members. Used economic coercion to teach blacks a lesson when they crossed "racial boundaries". African-Americans would lose their jobs, have insurance policies cancelled, be denied personal loans or home mortgages if whites thought they were not acting "in their place". Became so prominent that white politicians had to join the group to have any clout
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Organized by King and close associates in 1957 to keep alive the spirit of the bus boycott
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Created the Civil Rights Commission which was later extended indefinitely. Civil Rights Division created in the Justice Department to seek injunctions preventing any further interference with the black right to vote. Had no effect on the ability of blacks in the South to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1960
Made it so federal court referees would be placed in districts in the South where there had been repeated practices of discrimination against blacks at the polls, and made it a federal crime to interfere with any court order. Had little effect, gained some with presidential enforcement
Eisenhower didn't actually cover that much ground in terms of domestic and foreign policies since entering his post in 1953. But Eisenhower ended the war with Korea and put McCarthy to rest. Tried to restrain the arms race. Kept inflation minimal. He warned Americans to watch for consequences, don't just act in the prosperity or despair of the present Eisenhower thought military should be reduced in times of peace, he feared anything else would lead to great violence and grabs for power
65% equality. Fair Labor Standards act created minimum wage; unions supported him. AAs and NAs did well through the Indian Reorganization Act and the CCC. Executive Order 8802 - no discrimination for hiring in defense industries. Did not fight for anti-lynching laws cuz needed to keep southern Democrats. Japanese internment.
85% collective. Glass-Steagall Act created the FDIC. CCC - hired unemployed young men for rural projects. Agricultural Adjustment Administration tried to raise prices on farming commodities. National Industrial Recovery Act made industry more uniform. Social Security Act.
85% liberal. Payroll taxes introduced to fund SSA, income taxes increased, salary cap for executives. Repealed prohibition. NRA deemed unconstitutional because it was legislation by President.
80% equality. National Railway Strike - Turman seized control of corporation and threatened to draft strikers. Fair Deal-Agressive Civil rights program. Taft-Hartley Act - he veoted it cuz it was anti-union but Congress overrode him. Executive Order 9981 integrated U.S. armed forces. Truman tried to seize control of major steel industries but it was ruled unconstitutional
35% individualism. Enacted tax cuts.
80% equality. Urban renewal. Minimum wage. Social Security. Proposed civil rights. Used army to protect activists. Got MLK out of jail
75% collective. Housing Act. NASA. Social Security. Minimum wage.
80% liberal. Peace corps. Space program
85% equality. War on poverty. Civil Rights Act. Job corps. Head-Start program. VISA (Domestic Peace Corps). Community Action Program. Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965
79% collective. High taxes though he did cut them. Revenue Act of 1964. Grants to farmers, rural businesses. Tariffs are higher. Medicare and medicaid.
83% liberal. High taxes though he cut them. Lots of civil rights action, focused on domestic issues of the common people and helping them
Tom Hayden and Al Haber
Founded the Students for a Democratic Society (part of New Left movement)
Stonewall Inn Incident (June 1969)
Gay bar in NYC where a riot took place between police and homosexuals fighting for their rights. Organization formed because of this rioting - Gay Liberation Front. GLF began to encourage people to "come out" so that the public could see the damaging oppression of their society
Shocks people through his writing. Ginsberg discusses how America tells everyone to fight the common enemy of the Russians and more but then they refuse the help of homosexuals and it does not make sense. He discusses how America has global issues to deal with but they continue to fight homosexuality and it is a waste of effort. America tries to make itself appear prosperous and content, but many people are neither and the gays continually feel oppressed, hurt, isolated, and it is harder for them to organize even than most minorities
Wrote the Feminine Mystique (1963). She was a graduate of Smith College and a stay-at-home mom. She polled her fellow graduates from Smith and found out that most women were not happy in the life of a suburban housewife. She proved that after WWII, government propaganda putting women back in the home created "feminine mystique" and encouraged the idea that women had limited purposes
National Organization for Women
Founded by Friedan and others in 1966. Wanted to end discrimination based on gender, also tried to legalize abortion and get money for child-care centers.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972
"colleges were required to institute 'affirmative action' programs to ensure equality for women"
Roe v. Wade (1973)
"Struck down state laws forbidding abortions during the first three months of pregnancy"
American Indian Movement
Founded by George Mitchell and Dennis Banks in 1963. Leaders occupied Alcatraz in 1969 claiming it as their rightful land. 1972- sit-in at BIA because BIA showed government care gone wrong
AIM brought 200 Sioux to Wounded Knee where they organized to try to bring attention to the alcoholism, school drop-out rate, poverty, and overall low standard of living. Militants took 11 hostages and there was a standoff with federal troops for 2 weeks. Ended with government promise to reexamine Indian treaty rights.At this point Indians began to move into federal courts bringing old treaties, most resulted in a raised standard of living as states provided legal recognition of tribes accompanied by financial compensation
Trail of Broken Treaties
Indian march "Trail of Broken Treaties" went to BIA in November 1972 to peaceably discuss crucial issues in American Indian life at the time and how to solve them. Soon became a sit-in and then took over the BIA building altogether and held it for 5 days. The destruction represented the horrors the American government had wreaked on Native Americans. Government negotiated but only to the Native Americans out of the BIA building and nothing more. Government finally acknowledged the existence of Native Americans
Leader of women's liberation movement
New Left Movement
Directly against capitalism and all the conformity of the 1950s and they fought it through sit-ins, protests, and violence.
About people making themselves individual, not attacking the government
Most radical faction of the SDS, very violent
14% equality. Anti-civil rights to try to keep southern voters. Tried to block renewal of Voting Rights Act of 1965. His Supreme Court did a lot to help Civil Rights though he opposed it.
47% collective. New Federalism - giving $ back to people and states. Tried to raise taxes and cut budget in Nixon Recession but Democrats stopped him
60% liberal. Tried to stop a lot of liberal movement but signed in: Endangered Species Act and EPA and NOAA.
82% equality. Made civil rights abroad the heart of his foreign policy. Amnesty to those who evaded the Vietnam Draft. Administration had more blacks and women than any before it.
55% equality. Created Departments of Energy and Education. Energy Bill in 1972.
87% liberal. All evidence for H/E supports his liberalism.
Criticisms of Carter
Negotiations to overturn control of Panama Canal to gov. in Panama, eventually happened. Fuel shortage in summer of 1979 as a result of violence in the Middle East
10% equality. Cut funds for civil rights enforcement and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Opposed renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Poverty and homelessness increased during his presidency. Reagan's administration did not help AIDs victims. But he never actually pushed for the social issues his religious groups supported. Very anti-unions, deregulates airline industry. Fires airtraffic controllers for striking
16% collective. Laissez-faire. Economic Recovery Tax Act cut taxes. Budget cuts kept getting made until Reagan was forced to raise taxes in 1982. Tax Reform Act (1986) reduced taxes again.
25% liberal. Moral Majority, Laissez-Faire.
Criticism of Reagan
Black Monday. Did not help civil rights. National debt increases. EPA loses funding. Lots of corruption in his first administration. University of CA v. Bakke decision.
University of CA v. Bakke
1978. Court ruled schools could not exclude other students in order to fill minority percentages
15% equality. Most of burden of social programs fell to state and local governments at this time.
35% collective. Refused to raise taxes, kept lowering capital-gains taxes. Bush was forced to cut budget and raise taxes though he promised he never would
30% liberal. Laissez-faire. Tried to uphold Reagan's ideals and actions
Criticism of Bush
Left social programs mostly to state and local governments. Didn't handle recession well, didn't show the necessary confidence. No plans for demobilization.
70% equality. Wanted to allow open gays in the military, this became Don't Ask Don't Tell
65% collective. Stimulus package blocked by Republicans. Package of spending cuts and tax hikes on upper incomes. North American Free Trade Agreement.
60% liberal. Tried to pass universal-healthcare bill. Limits welfare (Personal Responsibility Act)
Criticism of Clinton
Flip-flopped on controversial issues based on polls and popularity and was willing to sacrifice anything to become president and stay popular. Distrust of personal character for adultery and allegedly avoiding the draft. NAFTRA - people though this would create too much outsourcing.
Book about black families who do not want to desegregate, feel their kids will not be taught the same black history. Put students/people in danger. Worried about curriculum of pro-America, pro-white.
Generational Conflict Over Sit-Ins
Sit-ins united students and eventually the community. But parents did not want their kids wasting time and $ especially since most of them were enrolled in expensive colleges.
Brown v. Board II
1955. "All deliberate speed" to the process of integrating schools. Southern states take this to mean they can take as much time as they want
Want federal legislation and action to end discrimination/segregation especially based on race and gender. They want free speech on controversial issues in order to move forward intellectually, especially in favor of equality being enforced in education.
Disaster Loan Act
Truman sees farmers as an important group which they had not been viewed as before, also made it so many farmers are dependent on federal funding
Housing Act of 1949
Allocation of federal funds to urban renewal, more public housing
National Mental Health Act of 1946
More Americans are now being included in society
"The purpose of protecting the life of our Nation and preserving the liberty of our citizens is to pursue the happiness of our people"
Lyndon B. Johnson
"Those who do work are denied a fair return for their labor by a tax system which penalizes successful achievement"
"I intend to establish working groups to prepare a series of White House conferences and meetings on the cities, on natural beauty, on the quality of education and on other emerging challenges"
Lyndon B. Johnson
"We are a nation that has a government - not the other way around. And this makes us special among nations on Earth"
Our present troubles parallel and are proportionate to the intervention and intrusion in our lives that result from unnecessary and excessive growth of government"
"We have always prided ourselves on being not only America the strong and America the free, but America the beautiful"
Lyndon B. Johnson
Johnson Debt Default Act of 1934
Prohibited even private loans to any government that had defaulted on its debt to the U.S.
Twenty-One Demands (1915)
Issued by Japan, would pretty much have put China under Japanese control
Ambiguous agreement recognized Japan's "special interests" in China. Continued the appearance of friendship
Washington Conference (1921)
With reps. of 8 major foreign powers present, U.S. Secretary of State Charles Hughes announced that the armaments race should end immediately
Five-Power Treaty (1922)
Tonnage limits on navies and moratorium of 10 years "during which no battleships would be built". No further fortification of Pacific possessions. Signed by U.S., France, Italy, Britain. Divided the Earth so U.S. navy took western hemisphere, Japan took western pacific, British took North Sea to SIngapore
Mutual respect of possessions in the Pacific. U.S., Britain, France, Japan.
Pledged all signers to support the Open-Door policy in China. Signed by the 5-power treaty nations plus China, Belgium, Portugal, Netherlands.
American Committee for the Outlawry of War
Started in 1921 - Demonstrates isolationist sentiment in America
Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)
Agreement where France and the U.S. would never enter a war against each other. But it actually "drew the U.S. into the French security system by the back door. In any future war, for instance, such a pact would inhibit the U.S. from seeking reprisals in response to any French intrusions on neutral rights". Kellog turned this around by having all nations sign the pact in the Pact of Paris
Pact of Paris (August 1928)
"Condemn recourse to war...and renounce it as an instrument of national policy". 62 nations signed it, but all kept the option of "self-defense". U.S. kept Monroe Doctrine as another reason for self-defense. Actually did very little except give the general population a greater sense of security
Rebel leader opposed U.S. intervention in Nicaragua
Pan-American Conference (1928)
Led by Coolidge in Havana - Hughes announced intervention to withdraw marines from Nicaragua and Haiti ASAP. But Hughes would not allow a resolution declaring "no state has the right to intervene in the affair of others"
Denied the Monroe Doctrine justified U.S. intervention in Latin America. Hoover did not enforce this, but he also never interfered in Latin America
7th Pan-American Conference (1933)
U.S. supported a resolution declaring no nation "has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of others"
Treaty of Relations between U.S. and Cuba (1934)
Abrogated Platt Amendment, ended last formal claim of U.S. in Latin America
Manchuria Incident (1931)
Explosion destroyed a section of Japanese railroad track near the city. Japanese army blamed it on the Chinese, used it as a pretext to occupy all of Manchuria. This violated the 9-power treaty, the Kellog-Brian Pact, and Japan's pledge as a member of the LON. China asked the LON and U.S. for help, neither would.
U.S. refused to recognize any treaty, agreement, or situation that violated American treaty rights - No effect on Japanese who soon took Shanghai
Organized Fascist movement in Italy after seizing power in 1922. Hybrid of nationalism and socialism, quickly abandoned socialism part and suppressed political opposition.
Took dictatorial powers after being made chancellor in 1933
Secretary of State wanted reciprocal trade agreement, thought free trade would advance understanding and preserve peace
Trade Agreements Act
Authorized President to lower tariff rates as much as 50% for countries who did the same on American products (agreements made with 14 countries by the ned of 1935)
Soviet commissar for foreign affairs invited to D.C. by FDR. His arrival showed renewal of diplomatic relations with Russia
Marco Polo Bridge (1937)
Japanese and Chinese troops clashed and escalated into war
Establishing "Axis" powers
HItler forced union of Austria with Germany in March 1938 and took the Sudeten territory from Czechoslovakia. Agreement at Munich said Britain and France were abandoning Czechoslovakia
September 1, 1939
Germany invaded Poland
Senator Gerald P. Nye
Led investigation from 1934-37 that found bankers and munitions makers made scandalous profits during WWI. People thought America was duped by "merchants of death"
Neutrality Act of 1935
Forbade sale of arms and munitions to all warring nations whenever president proclaimed a state of war, and Americans who travelled on belligerent's ships did so at their own risk. Roosevelt invoked the act when Italy invaded Ethiopia on October 3, 1935
Fourth Neutrality Law (Spring 1937)
Restraint on arms, sales, loans; forbade Americans to travel on ships of nations at war, prohibited arming of U.S. merchant ships trading with those nations. FDR chose not to invoke this law over the Marco Polo Bridge Incident because it would not have ended up benefiting Japan
American gunboat anchored in China, Japan also attacked 3 American oil tankers
Proposed constitutional amendment would have required a public referendum for a declaration of war in case of attack on U.S. territory but this proposal was tabled in 1938
Neutrality Act of 1939
Britain and France could send freighters to the U.S., buy supplies with cash, take away arms or anything else they desired. American ships were excluded from ports of warring nations and specified war zones. FDR designated a war zone at the Baltic Sea and the waters around Britain and Ireland from Norway south to the coast of Spain --> relieved Hitler of any inhibitions about using unrestricted submarine warfare to blockade Britain
National Defense Research Committee (June 1940)
FDR set this up to coordinate military research, including top-secret effort to develop at atomic bomb
Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force outfought the German Luftwaffe. Negotiations began because Britain needed more Navy ships because German submarine warfare was destroying theirs --> 50 "overaged" U.S. destroyers went to Britain in return for 99 year leases on naval and air bases in British territories in the Caribbean
Thought national security demanded aid to Britain
Wendell L. Willikie
Republican nominee in 1940. Former democrat who voted for FDR and 1932 and a utilities president who had fought the TVA. "Hoosier farm boy". Spent most of his campaign time having to worry about striking down New Deal "red tape" and promising to run programs better (People didn't really care about this as much as they did about the war, made Willikie look weak)
Roundabout program of supplying the British in a way the American people would approve
Lend-Lease Bill (March 1941)
Authorized the President to sell, transfer, exchange, lend, lease, otherwise dispose of arms and other equipment and supplies to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the U.S.". Republicans and politicians from the midwest opposed the bill, as did isolationists in general.
Hitler was in position to control all of the Middle East
Italy entered the War as Germany's ally
Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
Created by FDR and Churchill. Called for self-determination of all peoples, equal access to raw materials, economic cooperation, freedom of seas, new systems of international security. Eventually endorsed by all eleven anti-Axis nations
American warship fired on by German submarines on September 4, 1941. FDR announced a week later to "shoot on sight" German or Italian raiders
Kearny and the Reuben James
Kearny was an American ship that sustained severe damages from German torpedoes on October 17, 1941. The James was sunk by Germans 2 weeks later
Export Control Act of July 2, 1940
Authorized the President to restrict the export of American arms and other strategic materials to Japan. Gradually FDR extended embargoes on aviation, gas, scrap iron, other supplies
Tripartite Pact (September 1940)
Japan, Germany, and Italy all said they would declare war on any nation that attacked them
Japan signed nonagression pact with the USSR
Japan assumes protectorate over all French Indochina. FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S., restricted oil exports to Japan, merged armed forces of the Philippines with the U.S. army
Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Japan. They ignored onshore facilities and oil tanks in Hawaii that supported U.S. fleet. Missed aircraft carriers which had left earlier. Same day, Japan invaded: Philippines, Guam, Midway, Hong Kong, Malay Peninsula. FDR advocated war the next day
December 11, 1941
Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. because of the Tripartite Pact...and because they want to
Hornet (Early 1942)
B-25 bombers took off from this carrier to launch an air raid on Tokyo. Caused little damage but lifted American morale
Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)
Stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops toward New Guinea. Americans suffered greater losses but Japan lost its bid for Australia
Turning point of the Pacific war. Showed aircraft carriers were the most important part of modern naval warfare, not battleships. Japanese attacked American base of Midway Island, Americans knew they were coming because they cracked the Japanese code. First wave of Japanese brought great destruction but then Americans struck back and destroyed the Japanese aircraft carriers
War Powers Act of 1941
Gave the President the authority to reshuffle government agencies
Second War Powers Act (1941)
Gave the government power to allot materials and facilities as needed for defense
War Production Board
Directed conversion of industrial manufacturing to war production. FDR wanted "crushing superiority of equipment"
Dr. Vannevar Bush
Mobilized thousands of scientists to create and modify innovations spurred by the war effort
Revenue Act of 1942
Provided only about $7 billion in increased revenue, less than half recommended amount by the Treasury. congress was run by conservatives who feared taxes more than deficits, while FDR pulled for raising taxes. The Act also broadened the tax structure, made everyone a taxpayer.
Office of Price Administration (1942)
Congress authorized the setting of price ceilings. Frozen prices meant goods had to be allocated through rationing, "with coupons doled out for sugar, gasoline, automobile tires, and meats"
Stabilization Act of 1942
President could control wages and farm prices. Previously, farm prices were not controlled.
Major win for Republicans in 1942 because of "discontent with price controls, labor shortages, rationing, and a hundred other petty vexations spread". Republicans began to dismantle "nonessential" New Deal Programs such as the WPA and the NYA. Losing support for Democrats outside the South strengthened the position of Southern Democrats.
Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act
Authorized the government to seize plants and mines useful to the war effort.
Labor Unions in the 1940s
In 1943, many states passed laws restricting union activities. In 1944, Arkansas and FL put in place "right-to-work" legislation outlawing closed shops. Mine workers walked about on their jobs, but their demands were soon met or compromised to keep up production for the war.
Mobilization and Development of the West
Economic development and population boomed in the western states as defense production and mobilization picked up. Fastest rade of urban growth in the far West.
Changing Roles for Women
Women took all kinds of positions in the workforce while the men were away at war. Government propaganda tried to get women involved in the war effort by telling them to "Do your part, free a man from service" - able to get more married women into the workforce. Men were scared by women joining the workforce. Still a patronizing attitude toward women - aside from those in the Women's Army Corps, they were mostly put in to military volunteer positions as nurses, they still have a "special place" in war. Women took much more extensive roles than in WWI, especially in terms of joining the army with the likes of the WAC. Huge percentages worked in defense plants, far more so than had during WWI
Women's Army Corps
Almost 200,000 women served in this and the navy's equivalent (WAVE). Others joined other branches of the military in lesser numbers
A. Philip Randolph
Head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Planned a march on Washington to demand an end to racial discrimination in defense industries. Roosevelt's administration struck a bargain that the Randolph group would call off its march in exchange for an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense work and training programs
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Mostly a moral group, they did not have any power to enforce their ideas
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Struck down Texas' white-only primary saying Democratic primaries were part of the election process and subject to the 15th amendment
Bracero Program (1942)
Mexico agreed to provide seasonal farmworkers in exchange for promise by U.S. government not to draft them. Americans provided transportation and the workers operated on one-year contracts
Zoot-Suit Riots (1943)
Thousands of off-duty soldiers and sailors along with many white civilians, rampaged through downtown Los Angeles streets assaulting Latinos, African-Americans, Filipinos
Executive Order 9066
FDR initiated internment in February 1942
Declaration of the United Nations
Affirmed principles of Atlantic Charter in January 1942 - pledging full resources of all anti-Axis nations and promising not to make separate peace with Germany, Italy, or Japan
November 8, 1942
Supreme Allied Commander Eisenhower led American forces to land at Casablanca in Morocco and Oran and Algiers in Algeria. French forces could not resist. Hitler occupied all of France in response, and sent Germans into Tunisia (a French protectorate). Meanwhile Brits confronted Germans in Libya and newly trained Americans confronted Germans in Tunisia
Allies take North Africa
Strategies after the North Africa Victory
Main priority: stopping German submarine warfare in the Atlantic. Americans wanted to take France back, Brits wanted to attack Italy. Both agreed to "step up the bombing of Germany and to increase shipments of military supplies to the Soviet Union and the Nationalist Chinese forces fighting the Japanese". FDR and Churchill announced in 1943 that the war could only end with "unconditional surrender"
Allies land in Sicily after capturing North Africa, Sicily captured within a month but many German soldiers escaped to the mainland
Allies launched first air raid on Germany itself. AAF and RAF attack German-controlled areas in Europe as well. After early 1943, bombings were continually scheduled on Germany
June 6, 1944. Allies take the coast of France and begin encroaching inward
Declaration of Cairo
Between FDR, Churchill, and China's general Chiang Kaishek --> said war against Japan would continue until unconditional surrender
Churchill, FDR, Stalin. Planned invasion of France, Russian offensive to coincide. Stalin repeated promise to enter war with Japan after German loss. All 3 agreed to create United Nations after the War.
Operation Overlord (D-Day)
Taking out Hitler's "Atlantic Wall" along the French coastline. Careful planning and surprise allowed it to succeed. By mid-September 1944, most of France and Belgium were cleared of enemy troops
Battle of the Bismarck Sea
Americans sank 8 Japanese troopships, 10 warships all carrying reinforcements. After this Japanese stopped risking warships to areas under siege. This meant that now when Americans attacked Japanese strongholds, they could then leave them to die because the Japanese stopped sending supplies/reinforcements. Strategy became known as leapfrogging
American forces killed Admiral Yamamoto (directed Pearl Harbor), shattered Japanese morale
Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 1944)
Destroyed 3 Japanese aircraft carriers, 2 submarines, over 300 planes. Secured Marianas, B-29s soon began to bomb Japan
Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944)
In the Philippines, largest naval engagement in history. Japan knew if they lost they would lose essential raw materials from the East Indies. First use of kamikaze units
Thomas E. Dewey
Republican nominee in 1944. Main platform was for young men to replace "tired" older leaders of the New Deal
Battle of the Bulge (December 1944)
Germans advanced along 50-mile bulge in Belgium and Luxembourg. Penetrated until they were stalled at Bastogne. Germans siege Bastogne but Americans would not give up. Finally the clouds rolled away after 6 days and American aircraft could resupply those inside Bastogne and hit at the Germans, finally reinforcements arrived to relieve the Americans and break them out. Resulted in open door to Germany from the west
Russians began final offensive westward
Yalta Conference (February 1945)
Provisions: Conference to create new world security organization starting April 1945. Soviets would control eastern Germany; Allies would control industry-heavy western Germany. Berlin would be shared. Also joint occupation in Austria. Britain and France were concerned about Russia's continuing encroachment but America hesitated because of their bid for Russia's aid against Japan as well as their interest in the League of Nations. Russia was taking Poland, which is what had started WWII. FDR and Churchill let the Soviets expand the Lublin Committee into a provisional government.
Soviets in Poland
Soviets put in place civil administration under Polish Committee of National Liberation in Lublin, Communist regime that did not represent the Poles. Soviet armies stopped offensive for 2 months while Nazis wiped out thousands of Poles, potential rivals for Soviets' Lublin puppet government
Goals of Big 3 at Yalta
Free elections, democratic governments, constitutional safeguards of freedom throughout the rest of Europe
Yalta Declaration of Liberated Europe
Reaffirmed faith in the principles of the Atlantic Charter, but made little difference because Communist members of coalition governments soon suppressed any opposition to them
Criticism of Yalta
Essentially gave over Eastern Europe to the Soviets
May 7 ,1945
Germany signed unconditional surrender in Allied HQ in France. V-E Day on May 8, massive celebration in Europe.
War Refugee Board
Est. by FDR in 1944. Rescued about 200,000 European Jews and about 20,000 others. "The Allied handling of the Holocaust was inept at best and disgraceful at worst"
Largest amphibious operation of the Pacific war. About 140,000 dead Japanese. After it fell, the Japanese emperor ordered the Prime Minister to begin to seek peace terms
Potsdam Declaration (July 26, 1945)
Demanding Japanese surrender or face 'prompt and utter destruction'
August 6, 1945. First atomic bomb dropped on this city. USSR entered war against Japan immediately after
August 9, 1945. Second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.
September 2, 1945
Formal surrender by Japanese on battleship Missouri. Japanese surrender on term that Emperor could keep his sovereignty, U.S. accepted this as long as it would be under the authority of an Allied Supreme Commander
Executive Order 8802
No discrimination against African-Americans in government policy
All-Japanese regiment, they want to fight the Japanese to prove their loyalty. They fought in Italy, and were the most decorated unit in military history
All African-American air regiment, did not lose a single fighter in battle.
Double Victory Campaign
African-Americans make the war about Civil Rights as well as beating the Nazis
Mobilization of the Homefront
Japanese are depicted as threatening monsters, drives Americans to produce a lot to fight the monsters away from their home. Drove women to devote themselves to get their men home from war sooner. The government scares people into not talking about the war because supposedly there could be spies everywhere, gives the people patriotism in their silence. images of soldiers emphasize the importance of production and quality of production. In WWI, the threat was much less direct. Everybody's production in WWII is important for the economy and the War, the government needs to get people motivated
American Diplomatic Policy in the 1920s and 1930s
Trade agreements are the only policies really in action, which indicates an emphasis on dollar diplomacy. U.S. really uses moral diplomacy though because they want to pull people out of the countries in Latin America and let those countries run themselves. "Good neighbor" implies doing what is best for another country
U.S. Initial Preparation for WWII
Pearl Harbor built to strengthen navy. FDR does not want to send soldiers off, states "We are free to live, and love and laugh. We face the future with confidence and with courage"
U.S. Declaration of War After Pearl Harbor
U.S. gets involved because U.S. citizens are in danger, the government is ignoring the Holocaust affecting Europeans at this time.
American Juggling Act
American government was trying to balance maintaining the economy with staying neutral
Four Freedoms Speech
Another name for the 1941 State of the Union address. FDR proposed four fundamental freedoms "everyone in the world ought to enjoy", and the last 2 freedoms he proposes go beyond U.S. constitutional values protected by 1st Amendment; support a right to economic security and an internationalist foreign policy view. 1 - Freedom of speech and expression. 2 - Freedom of worship. 3 - Freedom from want. 4 - Freedom from fear.
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Supreme Court ruled Japanese internment to be constitutional because they were a security threat
Bronx slave market
Place where people could go to hire work for a day
Challenges At Beginning of Depression
Relieving economy, Relieving human misery, Rescuing the farm sector
FDR's 3-point strategy
Remedy banking crisis, short-term emergency relief for the jobless; Promote industrial recovery through increased federal spending and cooperative agreements between management and organized labor; Raise depressed commodity prices by paying farmers to reduce sizes of crops and herds
Emergency Banking Relief Act
Stable banks could reopen after banking holiday, and government provided managers for those who were still in trouble although FDR acknowledged that some would not be able to reopen at all
Granted executive branch power to cut government salaries, reduce payments to military veterans for disabilities unrelated to service, and reorganized federal agencies in interest of reducing federal expense
Ended Prohibition. The Beer-Wine Revenue Act ended the Volstead act
March 9 - June 16, 1933. 15 major proposals enacted
Farm Credit Administration
Put all federal farm credit agencies into one
Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and the Farm Credit Act
Extensive refinancing of farm mortgages at lower interest rates to "stem the tide of foreclosures"
Home Owners' Loan Act
SImilar service as Farm Mortgage act but for city dwellers, created Home Owners' Loan Corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Guaranteed personal bank deposits up to $5,000 - overall gave people much more confidence in the banking system. Also separated investment and commercial banking corporations; extended Federal Reserve Board's power over credit
Federal Securities Act
Required full disclosure of information on new stock and bond issues, first by registration with Federal Trade Commission, then with the Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission
Created to regulate chaotic stock and bond markets
April 19, 1933
Gold Standard abandoned
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Gave work to unemployed and unmarried men age 18-25. Lots of work was given in environmental and public works departments. Workers got $30 a month, with $25 sent home to families. Workers could also take education courses, earn high school diplomas.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Similar to CCC but gave money to states in grants instead of "loans". Dole was sometimes used as a quicker way to reach the needy
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Provided federal jobs and wages to people unable to work in the winter. Lots of public works repair and construction as well as many teaching positions to promote education and keep schools open. FDR dissolved the CWA in spring 1934 because it cost a lot and he began to fear that people would become dependent on federal jobs
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
Work relief for jobless through several federal programs
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Harry Hopkins had to provide millions of jobs quickly so many appeared to be just busy work, but also many permanent monuments were built as well as public works, airports, schools
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Part-time employment for students, set up technical training programs, aided jobless youth
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Sought to control farm production by compensating farmers for voluntary cutbacks in production. Processing tax was instated on certain commodities to pay for this compensation. Bumper crops and large population of hogs had to all be destroyed in order to raise prices. Benefit programs encourage large farmers to take over land worked by small farmers. Program did find success in boosting the overall economy.
United States v. Butler
Supreme Court declared AAA's tax on food processors to be unconstitutional
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Omitted processing taxes and acreage quotas but provided benefit payments for soil-conservation practices that took land out of soil-depleting staple crops --> crop reduction. Showed success in engineering and education. Soil conservation didn't work for limiting crops.
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938
Reestablished earlier programs but left out processing taxes, took money from federal funds instead. In Supreme Court case, it was found that agriculture would now alos be held under "stream-of-commerce"
National Industrial Recovery Act
Economic recovery and public works project
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Granted $3.3 billion for public buildings, highway programs, flood control, other improvements. Indirectly provided work relief as well. Used it for "well-planned permanent improvements, and he used private contractors rather than workers on the government payroll"
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Created by NIRA. Industry-wide codes would define standards to increase competition and create higher wages and more jobs; also stabilized business overall. Committees in each industry representing management, labor, and government drew up codes of fair practice. Labor standards became 40-hour workweek and minimum weekly wage of $13. Proviso made child labor under 16 illegal. Labor unions were concerned by the NRA's effort to fix wages and prices. NRA guaranteed the right to organize unions - but not enforced well; also people thought the federal gov. was telling them they should join a union. NRA only worked temporarily post-Depression. NRA struck down as unconstitutional in 1935. NRA wage codes excluded agricultural and domestic workers.
Effects of the NRA
Helped with workplace standards (40 hour workweek, child labor); Increased support for labor unions; Increased stabilization; More trade association
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Tried to bring electrical power and jobs to one of the poorest regions of the nation. Nine dams on the TN River, creating "Great Lakes of the South".
Results of the TVA
Encouraged formation of labor unions, improved schools and libraries, sent cheap electric power through the valley; Mostly brought cheap electricity; Brought private utilities to mass consumers, moving farmers into a new age of electricity
Federal Housing Administration
Refused to guarantee mortgages on houses purchased by blacks in white neighborhoods
Society of Female Manufacturing Workers
Formed in 1933 by Mexican-American women in Texas
Grovey v. Townsend (1935)
Upheld Texas Democrats' white primary. Lasted for 9 years and was the last of the decisions narrowing the application of Reconstruction Amendments.
Nine black youth convicted of raping 2 white women on a train in Alabama. Powell v. Alabama (1932) - Ruled first verdict did not matter because accused did not have adequate defense attorneys. Norris v. Alabama (1935) - Ruling said that systematic exclusion of African-Americans from Alabama juries denied defendants equal protection of the law
The Grapes of Wrath
Steinbeck. Treated workers as people instead of part of a political formula
Educated black man from MI. Federal Writer's PRoject allowed him to develop his talent. Spent 1934-1944 as a Communist which gave him intellectual framework but did not overcome his independence. Wrote "Native Son"
By Richard Wright. Story of Bigger Thomas, forced to murder by forces out of his control, expressed rage at "the Ethics of living Jim Crow"
Comedian vaudeville performers tried to "laugh the big bad wolf of the depression out of the public mind"
Embraced social service, showed ardent concern for rights of women and blacks. First woman to address a national political convention. Eleanor toured the nation representing FDR and the New Deal; defied local segregation ordinances to meet with African-American leaders; supported women's causes and organized labor. Became a presidential liaison with more liberal groups - labor leaders, women's activists
American Liberty League
Formed by Alfred E. Smith and John W. Davis to oppose New Deal measures as violations of personal and property rights
"Kingfish" Senator Huey P. Long
Reformer driven by compulsive urge for power and attention. Delivered tax favors, roads, schools, free textbooks, charity hospitals, better public services. Became somewhat of a state dictator in the process but this did not pose an issue to supporters. Created the Share-the-Wealth program
Created by Huey P. Long. Wanted to confiscate fortunes from the rich to pay every poor family a grant of $5,000 and every worker an annual income of $2,500, provide pensions to aged, reduce working hours, pay veterans' bonuses, ensure college education for every qualified student. The program did little to promote economic recovery and Long's numbers did not add up.
Townsend Recovery Plan
Created by Francis E. Townsend. Gave $200 a month to every citizen over 60 who was retired, and they had to promise to spend the money within the month. Townsend did not care about the cost of this plan
Charles E. Coughlin
Roman Catholic "radio priest". Founded the National Union for Social Justice in 1935. Promoted coining silver. Made remarks that implied anti-semitism
FDR's Response to Long, Townsend, Coughlin
These politicians moved FDR to move toward the liberal end of the spectrum and institute new programs of reform and social security
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
Corporation convicted of selling "unfit chicken". Resulted in ruling that Congress had delegated too much power to the executive branch when it granted the code-making authority to the NRA and Congress had exceeded its power under the commerce clause by regulating interstate commerce
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
Gave workers the right to bargain through unions of their choice and prohibited employers interfering with union activities
Social Security Act of 1935
FDR declared this the New Deal's "cornerstone" and "supreme achievement". A fairly conservative program - only one of its kind to be financed by taxes on the earnings of workers - but fixed rate so it hurt poor more than rich. Pensions fund for retired over 65 and their survivors. Workers and employers contributed payroll taxes to establish fund. SHared federal-state unemployment-insurance program. Committed national government to a broad range of social welfare activities based on assumption that "unemployables" would remain state responsibility while federal government would provide work relief for the able-bodied
Revenue Act of 1935
"Soak-the-rich tax". Raised taxes on income above $50,000. Estate and gift taxes also rose, as well as the corporate tax on all but small corporations. Failed to significantly increase federal revenue
Alfred M. Landon
Republican presidential candidate in 1936, endorsed many New Deal programs. Republicans thought if they could draw away enough Democratic votes through supports of Long, Coughlin, and Townsend, from Roosevelt they could swing the election
Candidate from Union Party supported by Coughlin and Townsend's followers after Kingfish was assassinated
Growth in Republican Supporters
During election of 1936, the growth encompassed: Western beneficiaries of New Deal agricultural programs; Ethnic groups helped by the New Deal welfare in the north; Middle-class voters; Intellectuals; Revived labor movement; African-American voters; People earning lower wages tended to support Roosevelt
FDR wanted to create up to 50 new federal judges, including 6 new Supreme Court justices. He also wanted to diminish the power of older judges and judges who served for 10+ years. OVerall deal hurt FDR's image, and especially his support from Southern Democrats and Democrats in general
John L. Lewis
Head of the United Mine Workers - rebuilt union from 150,000 to 500,000 members.
Amalgamated Clothing Workers and International Ladies Garment Workers
Both promoted campaign to organize workers in mass production industries
Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
Formed by industrial unionists. Craft unionists feared "submergence by mass unions". AFL expelled the CIO
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Organizing drives began in automobile and steel industries. When Supreme Court upheld Wagner Act in 1937 - it made companies listen to these provisions.
Led the sit-down strike at the General Motors assembly plant in Michigan
Women relatives of the strikers picketed at the plant entrances and brought supplies to workers who slept in the plant
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Led the opinion of less spending and a balanced budget to heal the 1937 economy. Thought recovery was slow because businesses were so hesitant to invest
Harold Ickes and Harry Hopkins
Argued for renewed government spending in light of the 1937 economy. Saw recession came just when the budget was brought into balance. Idea similar to that of John Maynard Keynes
Wagner-Steagall National Housing Act, Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act; the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Fair Labor Standards Act
Wagner-Steagall National Housing Act
Set up U.S. Housing Authority which extended long-term loans to local agencies willing to assume part of the cost of slum clearance and public housing. Also subsidized rents for the poor
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act
Addressed rural poverty, administered by Farm Security Administration - created rehabilitation loans to "shore up marginally profitable farmers and prevent their sinking into tenancy"; also made loans to tenants for the purchase of their farms
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
Reenacted basic devices of earlier AAA in response to renewed crop surpluses and price declines of the recession
the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
Broadened 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act; forbade use of false and misleading advertisement. Enforcement became responsibility of Federal Trade Commission
Fair Labor Standards Act
Only applied to enterprises involved with interstate commerce. Set minimum wage of 40 cents an hour; 40-hour workweek, also prohibited child labor under 16.
Ellison "Cotton Ed" Smith
Walked out of 1936 convention cuz he would not support party that saw blacks as equals
Committee of Un-American Activities
Established by the House of Representatives, took offensive against Communist. New Deal supporters came to be branded as Communists because Stalin was also a symbol of progressivism at first
Administrative Reorganization Act
President could "'reduce, coordinate, consolidate, and reorganize' government agencies"
New Deal Progressivism
Different than the progressivism of Teddy Roosevelt and Wilson. In the past progressivism had relied on "agressive regulation of industry and business to ensure that the people had an equal opportunity to pursue their notions of happiness"
Powerful federal government that mediated among major interest groups. Government role to protect a variety of interests, not just one
New Deal as "Half-Revolution"
FDR laid foundations for expanding welfare system by introducing greater regulatory functions in the government. But he left the basic capitalistic structure in place
Farmers who left their land for the west. California was the most popular destination. Farmers that stayed behind could buy repossessed land.
Movement sprung from postwar disillusionment among young artists, writers, and intellectuals, as new technologies, new modes of transportation and communication, and new scientific discoveries combined to rupture perceptions of reality, challenge old modes of thought, and generate new forms of artistic expression; first emerged in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century and became a pervasive international force by 1920.
Sacco and Vanzetti
The most celebrated criminal case of the postwar period involving two Italian-born anarchists, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who were arrested for a robbery and murder and later executed; a belief persists in some quarters that they were sentenced for their political ideas and their ethnic origins rather than for any crime they had committed, and the case became a great radical and liberal cause celebre of the 1920s.
The Passing of the Great Race
1916 book by Madison Grant that argued that the great race of the Nordics of northern Europe was threatened by the Slavic and Latin people of eastern and southern Europe, outlining a pseudo scientific racism that bolstered postwar nativist sentiments and anti-immigration groups.
Immigration Act of 1921
Act that restricted new arrivals each year to 3 percent of the foreign-born of any nationality as shown in the 1910 census.
Popular cause among the public, as for example in the case of Sacco and Vanzetti, which inspired public demonstrations around the world on behalf of the two men.
Ku Klux Klan
Organized in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866 to terrorize former slaves who voted and held political offices during Reconstruction; a revived organization in the 1910s and 1920s stressed white, Anglo-Saxon, fundamentalist Protestant supremacy; the Klan revived a third time to fight the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the South.
Anti-modernist Protestant movement started in the early twentieth century that proclaimed the literal truth of the Bible; the name came from The Fundamentals, published by conservative leaders.
William Jennings Bryan
Former secretary of state who became a fundamentalist leader whose following, prestige, and eloquence made the movement a popular crusade; in 1921 Bryan sparked a drive for laws to prohibit the teaching of evolution in the public schools, and in 1925 he served for the prosecution in the Scopes "monkey" trial, winning a hollow victory and dying a few days after the trial.
Book published by conservative leaders that lent its name to the anti-modernist Protestant movement started in the early twentieth century that proclaimed the literal truth of the Bible.
John T. Scopes
High school teacher who was prosecuted in 1925 for violating a Tennessee law outlawing the teaching of evolution in public schools and colleges; he was ultimately convicted but his $100 fine was overturned by the state supreme court on a legal technicality.
Renowned Chicago trial lawyer and confessed agnostic who was the defense attorney in the Scopes "monkey" trial of 1925; he ultimately lost but the ruling was merely a gesture and was overturned by the Tennessee Supreme Court on a technicality.
Period between the Eighteenth Amendment of 1919, the prohibition amendment that made the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal, and the Twenty-first Amendment of 1933, which repealed the prohibition.
Leading temperance organization that by the 1910s had become one of the most effective pressure groups in American history, mobilizing Protestant churches behind its single-minded battle to elect "dry" candidates; at its "Jubilee Convention" in 1913, the league endorsed a national Prohibition Amendment to the Constitution.
Prohibition amendment of 1919 that made illegal the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages.
Enforced the prohibition amendment, beginning January 1920.
Place where illegal alcoholic beverages were sold during the Prohibition Era.
1931 Report issued by a commission under former attorney-general George W. Wickersham that provided evidence that enforcement of Prohibition had broken down.
1920 novel by Sinclair Lewis that typifies the active disdain among leading young urban intellectuals for the old-fashioned rural/small-town values of the hinterlands.
Baltimore journalist who wrote for the Smart Set and American Mercury and was merciless in his attacks on small-town life and the hinterlands.
Term coined by writer F. Scott Fitzgerald for the postwar era because the young people were willing to experiment with new forms of recreation and sexuality.
This Side of Paradise
1920 novel of student life at Princeton by F. Scott Fitzgerald that depicted the revolution in manners and morals during the Jazz Age, evidenced first among young people and especially on the college campuses.
New York nurse and activist who began distributing birth-control information to working-class women in 1912; through her steadfast efforts, women for the first time began to gain easy access to contraception.
American Birth Control League
Organization founded by Margaret Sanger 1921, which in 1942 changed its name to Planned Parenthood, that distributed birth-control information to doctors, social workers, women's clubs, and the scientific community, as well as to thousands of individual women.
Quaker social worker who used militant tactics, such as hunger strikes, picket lines, and provoking arrest, on behalf of women's suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment, which her Woman's Party first introduced to Congress in 1923.
Law named after Anthony Comstock, a self-appointed anti-vice crusader, who in 1873 convinced Congress that contraceptive information was as "obscene" as pornography and should be banned from the postal system; in 1914 Margaret Sanger was arrested for violating the Comstock Law by publishing The Woman Rebel, a monthly journal that advocated militant feminism including the right to practice birth control, but her case never went to trial.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Feminist who was head of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) during the debate over and ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. Had a 5 part strategy: Tie local + state + national workers; gain a wide base of support (including college educated women); lobbying; lady-like behavior; organization. Generally very calm, as opposed to Paul's aggressiveness.
1920 Amendment that granted women the right to vote.
Equal Rights Amendment
Amendment to guarantee equal rights for women, introduced in 1923 but not passed by Congress until 1972; it failed to be ratified by the states.
African-American literary and artistic movement of the 1920s and 1930s centered in New York City's Harlem district; writers Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, and Countee Cullen were among those active in the movement.
Jamaican immigrant who was the first significant writer of the Harlem Renaissance movement, which featured a rediscovery of black folk culture and an emancipation from the genteel tradition; poems collected in McKay's Harlem Shadows (1922) expressed defiance in such titles as "If We Must Die" and "To the White Fiends."
Author whose novel Cane, which pictured the lives of simple folk in Georgia's black belt and the sophisticated African-American middle class in Washington, D.C., was perhaps the greatest single creation of the Harlem Renaissance.
Leading spokesman for "Negro nationalism" in the 1920s, which exalted blackness, black cultural expression, and black exclusiveness, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), who was convicted of mail fraud in 1923. Literally advocated for a separate nation where African-Americans can make laws.
Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black nationalist movement active in the United States from 1916 to 1923, when its leader Marcus Garvey went to prison for mail fraud.
Civil rights organization founded in 1910 that brought lawsuits against discriminatory practices and published The Crisis, a journal edited by African-American scholar W. E. B. Du Bois.
Theory of relativity
Theory elaborated by Albert Einstein, a German physicist, which maintained that space, time, and mass were not absolutes but relative to the location and motion of the observer.
Principle, developed by German physicist Werner Heisenberg in 1927, which stated that atoms were ultimately indescribable; one could never know both the position and the velocity of an electron because the very process of observation would inevitably affect the behavior of the particle, altering its position or velocity.
Poet and critic who, with poems such as "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," (1915) and The Waste Land (1922) and the journal Criterion which he founded in 1922, became the arbiter of modernist taste in Anglo-American literature.
Experimentalist poet and expatriate who was an early champion of modern art and one of the chief promoters of modernist prose style
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The earliest chronicler of the Jazz Age generation, who became successful and famous at an early age with novels such as This Side of Paradise (1920) and The Great Gatsby.
Writer who cultivated a public image caught up in the frenetic, hard-drinking lifestyle and the cult of athletic masculinity that are hallmarks of his novels such as Death in the Afternoon (1932), To Have and Have Not (1937), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952).
Literary movement of the 1920s and 1930s that included such writers as William Faulkner, Thomas Wolfe, and Robert Penn Warren. Came from "conflict between the dying world of tradition and the modern commercial world struggling to come to life in the aftermath of the Great War"
Nashville poetry journal published from 1922-1925 by a group of southern writer, among them John Crowe Ransom, Donald Davidson, Allen Tate, and Robert Penn Warren, who were committed to the new doctrines of modernism in literature.
Southern Renaissance writer from Asheville, North Carolina, who became famous with the publication of his novel Look Homeward, Angel.
Southern Renaissance writer from Asheville, North Carolina, who became famous with the publication of his novel Look Homeward, Angel.
Political movement. Blacks are disenchanted by the NAACP, Washington, DuBois. Marcus Garvey emerges as the leader, a big focus on embracing black culture and beauty.
The New Negro
Social philosophy created by Alan Locke. Stated African-Americans create their own music, literature, art - not imitating whites - creating their own definition of American. Contributions of blacks in New Negro movement should make whites see the benefits of everyone, unite people - doesn't work. Unites African-Americans through common experience, looks back at the pain of slavery and brings the people together to strengthen them.
Areas were outlined to show homes to African-Americans
Commission on Interracial Cooperation
1919. Opposed to lynching, run by clergymen, they believed that appealing to Southerners could end lynching. If this group can appeal to the moral compass of the South, the Southern people can handle the violence and federal intervention will be unnecessary.
Revival tied to Nativism. "Birth of a Nation", racist movie helps revive KKK.
Makes lynching a crime (NEVER passed). Defined lynching as murder by 3 or more people, all accomplices are guilty including observers, national government will prosecute if state does not.
"Help Us to Help"
W.E.B. DuBois is ready to defend the U.S. but he wants the government to help the African-Americans so the African-Americans can help the country
Expresses W.E.B. DuBois's disappointment that the trade-off he wanted was never made, the African-Americans are fighting for a country that hurts them. Black soldiers returning from war refuse to follow Jim Crow laws
Tensions about Women's Rights
Skeptical of women in imitation of men to achieve "equality". There is a biological difference between men and women, this has to be acknowledged, they have to maintain identity. Women should be appreciated for their merits and strengths, not just do it for the sake of equality. Marriage is natural, do't shy away from it.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Major factor in Prohibition
Warren G. Harding
Republican president elected in 1920 during the conservative postwar mood who promised a "return to normalcy," and whose presidency was known for a pro-business tone and many scandals, the most famous of which was the Teapot Dome scandal; while initially a much beloved president after his abrupt death in 1923 revelations about his amorous detours and corrupt associates tarnished his achievements laying the foundation for the decade's remarkable economic boom and promoting diversity and women's rights. Wanted to focus on America rather than international affairs. Presented a front of "traditional morals", but followed almost none of these in his personal life. Ineffective at dealing with equality, though he tried to promote it.
Promise of the Harding administration that, in contrast to the progressive social activism of the Wilson administration, appealed to the conservative postwar mood with a return to American isolationism from global affairs.
Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy, and higher tariffs.
Group of Ohio politicians who were colleagues of Warren G. Harding and gained many lesser offices in his administration; many ultimately used their White House connections to line their own pockets and tainted Harding's presidency with scandal.
Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
Created the Bureau of the Budget and the General Accounting Office.
Revenue Act of 1926
Act extended further benefits to high-income groups by lowering estate taxes and repealing the gift tax.
Harding administration scandal in which Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall profited from secret leasing to private oil companies of government oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California.
Albert B. Fall
Secretary of the Interior under President Harding who profited from secret leasing to private oil companies of government oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California that later came to be known as the Teapot Dome scandal.
Conservative Republican who became president in 1923 when Warren G. Harding died of a heart attack and was elected in 1924; Coolidge brought to the White House a clear conviction that the presidency should revert to its Gilded-Age stance of passive deference to Congress, and identified the nation's welfare with the success of big business and industrial development. Ineffective at dealing with equality though he may have tried to promote it.
Robert M. LaFollette
Wisconsin reformer who ran as a third-party candidate against Calvin Coolidge in the election of 1924, and with the support of a farmer-laborer coalition, the Socialist party, and the American Federation of Labor, received the largest popular vote ever polled by a third-party candidate.
Air Commerce Act
Act of 1926 that started a program of federal aid to air transport and navigation, including aid in establishing airports.
Charles A. Lindbergh
Aviator who in 1927 made the first transatlantic solo flight from New York to Paris in thirty-three hours and thirty minutes, a significant triumph for the infant aviation industry.
Pioneering American aviator who in 1931 became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, but who disappeared on an attempt at a round-the-world flight in 1937.
Secretary of commerce through the Harding-Coolidge years who was elected president in 1928, crowning a career of steady ascent, first in mining, then in public service; Hoover's image combined the benevolence fitting a director of wartime relief and the efficiency of a businessman and administrator, but the market crash tainted the end of his presidency and recast him as a stubborn opponent of depression relief.
Hoover's Approach to the Depression
At first laissez-faire, thought it was a natural decline. Then upbeat and confident with 3 step plan: Businesses should keep employment, wages, and prices at current level; Government should cut taxes, lower interest rates; People should donate money (volunteerism). Hoover knows his plan is failing, but doesn't want the federal government to intervene.
Term used by Herbert Hoover, developed in his book American Individualism (1922), that when applied to the relations of government and business, prescribed a kind of middle way between the regulatory and trust-busting traditions, a way of voluntary cooperation.
Effort to raise domestic farm prices in the 1920s to a point where farmers would have the same purchasing power relative to other prices they had had between 1909 and 1914, a time viewed in retrospect as a golden age of American agriculture.
A coalition of western Republicans and southern Democrats that put through a program of legislation from 1921 to 1923 to combat the falling crop prices of the early 1920s.
Efforts by Senator Charles L. McNary of Oregon and Representative Gilbert N. Haugen of Iowa to dump American farm surpluses on the world market in order to raise prices in the home market; several McNary-Haugen Bills were offered, but Coolidge opposed the measures as an unsound effort at price-fixing; the debates did succeed in turning the farm problem into an issue of national policy and defined it as a problem of surpluses.
Name given to the employment policy of using open shops by business groups in Chicago in 1921, which in theory implied only the employer's right to hire anyone but in practice meant discrimination against unionists.
Contracts that forced workers to agree to stay out of union, a type of intimidation effort used by employers to suppress unions
Benefit programs guided by company unions that employers used to sway the unions.
Benefit schemes such as profit-sharing, bonuses, pensions, health programs, recreational activities, and the like used by employers to sway unions.
Railway Labor Act
An exception to the anti-union policies of the twenties, the Railway Labor Act in 1926 abolished the Railway Labor Board and substituted a new Board of Mediation, as well as provided for the formation of railway unions "without interference, influence, or coercion."
1929 walkout at the huge Loray textile mill in Gastonia, North Carolina, that escalated into a prolonged conflict that involved two deaths.
System by which factory owners closed mills, slashed wages, raised production quotas, and operated mills around the clock to combat falling profits.
United Textile Workers
Union (UTW) that was part of the American Federation of Labor.
Alfred E. Smith
Democratic presidential nominee in 1928 who was Governor of New York, son of Irish immigrants, Catholic, and anti-Prohibition, attributes which were handicaps in the hinterlands but which swung big cities back into the Democratic column; Smith ultimately lost to Herbert Hoover.
Act of 1930 that raised tariffs to an unprecedented level and worsened the depression by raising prices and discouraging foreign trade.
To buy stock on meant to make a small down payment (the "margin") and borrow the rest from a broker who held the stock as security against a down market; if the stock declined and the buyer failed to meet a margin call for more money, the broker could sell the stock to cover his loan.
Squalid settlements of shacks of tarpaper and galvanized iron, old packing boxes, and abandoned cars that the dispossessed would erect near city dumps and along railroad tracks.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Federal program established in 1932 under President Herbert Hoover to loan money to banks and other institutions to help them avert bankruptcy. Used "trickle-down economics"
Banking Act of 1933 that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. A banking act of the Hoover administration, passed in 1932 and also known as the Glass-Steagall Act, was designed to expand credit.
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
Act of 1932 that created a series of discount banks for home mortgages, as well as provided savings and loan and other mortgage agencies a service much like that the Federal Reserve System provided to commercial banks.
Emergency Relief and Construction Act
Signed by President Hoover on July 21, 1932, giving the RFC Dollar 300 million for relief loans to the states, authorizing loans of up to Dollar 1.5 billion for state and local public works, and appropriating Dollar 322 million for federal public works, but avoiding a direct federal dole to individuals.
Bonus Expeditionary Force "Army"
Thousands of World War I veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, marched on Washington in 1932; violence ensued when President Herbert Hoover ordered their tent villages cleared.
Farmers' Holiday Association
Militant group formed by Iowan farmers which called a farmers' strike and forcibly blocked deliveries of produce in an effort to get government relief for farmers during the 1930s.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Realized the country needed to experiment with new ideas, he represented a very attractive confidence to the American people. Agrees with Hoover that the federal government should not step in right away in emergencies, but when other levels fail he opposes Hoover and believes that they must. He made careful combinations for his Cabinet, and depended a lot on his wife. Pledges "new Deal"
Presidents take office on January 20th
Causes of the Great Depression
Causes: Margin (installment buying for stocks); Roaring '20s were a fantasy of speculation, everybody speculates too much and nobody can pay each other back - people thought the economy would just keep going up; 1920s economic boom - employers expand but they don't raise wages; overproduction - supply catches up to demand; credit; Unequal distribution of wealth ($ kept in business, not given to people); People lose all their savings as banks close; Stock market crash
Stock market crash
Stocks plunge as people and businesses take their money out
Taft Supreme Court Rulings
Struck down federal child-labor law; Struck down minimum-wage law for women; Numerous injunctions against striking unions; Rulings limiting the power of federal regulatory agencies
Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922
Increased rates on chemical and metal products as a safeguard against the revival of German industries that had previously commanded the field, also extended duties on agricultural imports
Kelly Act of 1925
Federal government subsidized aircraft industry through airmail contracts
Air Commerce Act of 1926
Federal funds to aid in the advancement of air transportation and navigation, also supported construction of airports among other projects
Sent to Congress in 1924, sought to "secure 'equality for agriculture in the benefits of the protective tariff'". Wanted to put agricultural surplus into the world market, this would bring prices up in the United States, giving agricultural goods a similar "purchasing power" to any other goods. Passed Congress in 1927 and 1928 but vetoed by Coolidge for supposedly "fixing prices" and being "un-American". Progression of the bill allied the rural South and the West, soon became a dominant influence
Agricultural Marketing Act
1929 - Set up a Federal Farm Board to help farm cooperatives market the major commodities. Started about the same time as the Great Depression began
Government Policies Causing the Great Depression
Mellon's tax reduction made people want to save their money rather than spend it. "Hostility toward labor unions discouraged collective bargaining and may have worsened the prevalent imbalances in income". "High tariffs discouraged foreign trade". Anti-trust laws weren't enforced, raised prices
Emergency Immigration Act
1921 - Allowed only 3% new immigrants into the country per year, went down to 2% in 1924. This limitation was especially used to keep Asians out of the country. Many Hispanic Catholics immigrated as the U.S. focused on stopping Asians - until Mexican government clamped down on leaving the country. Illegal immigrants continued to come, southwesterners could use them for "stoop" labor. Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans → fastest growing ethnic minority in the country
Women eager to take advantage of their new freedoms, wore "bobbed hair, heavy makeup, and skirts above the ankle" - drank beer, drove cars, generally did things once considered "manly"
Symbol of feminism, they were galoshes that "flapped" around the ankles of women
Guinn v. United States (1915)
U.S. gov. struck down Oklahoma's grandfather clause
Buchanan v. Worley (1917)
Court invalidated a residential segregation ordinance in Kentucky
Buck v. Bell (1927)
Supreme Court upheld a ruling to sterilize a dyslexic woman so that she would not pass on "bad" genes to her children
Modifying genes to improve the genetic composition of a population
Strong cohesive (and involuntary) ties. Examples: taxes tie everyone in the U.S. together; Government usually has to issue this type of tie; Requires communistic principle of centralized social and economic control, especially over the means of production
Anti-lynching song (based on poem). Shows the brutality of lynching versus the idealized/"glorified" image of the South. As a top song, made a huge social impact, bringing awareness.
Flaws of the Harlem Renaissance
Many clubs for display of music and art were generally run by Mafia - racist organization, at the whim of a white business owner. Still segregated - black artists, but audience is almost entirely white. Only good life for a few during Harlem Renaissance, many blacks remained in low income jobs (no opportunity to experience cultural advancements, don't have the $, etc.) - a very small movement overall. Conditions remain largely the same (failure to pass anti-lynching bill, segregation and inequality continue)
Historical Context Leading to 19th Amendment
WWI showed women's patriotic devotion to the War, put suffrage on the back burner. Progressive Era - Democratic Party extending Progressivism beyond Democracy to whole population. Colleges open women's minds. Most suffrage groups disband after they achieve suffrage.
Federal officers confiscate alcohol-making materials, shows the expansion of executive power. Organized crime really emerges during this time. Prohibition reveals that you cannot legislate morality; fails to bring new morals to the people, shows maybe all the other Progressive programs will also fail. Women started drinking more during Prohibition to show their equality.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women's rights activist beginning in 1848, start of the suffrage movement. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association (in favor of constitutional amendment rather than state-by-state) and later President of National American Women's Suffrage Association. Tried to prevent passage of the 14th and 15th amendments because they did not include women. Also an abolitionist.
Susan B. Anthony
Women's rights activist followed in the steps of Stanton. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association (in favor of constitutional amendment rather than state-by-state) and later President of National American Women's Suffrage Association (after Stanton). Tried to prevent passage of the 14th and 15th amendments because they did not include women. Also an abolitionist. Fought vigorously for equal rights for women, including the dress reform movement.
Military dictator who assumed power of Mexico in 1913, forcing President Wilson to enunciate the new doctrine of nonrecognition out of sympathy for opposing factions; growing diplomatic pressure from the U.S. and his foes ultimately forced Huerta to leave office.
Exercising power as if legally established; being effectively in power but not officially acknowledged.
Leader of the Constitutionalist party in Mexico backed by President Wilson over Victoriano Huerta; recognized as Mexican president in 1915, managed to put through a new liberal constitution in 1917, but frequently clashed with rebel bandits, among them those led by Pancho Villa.
Leader of one of the independent gangs of bandits that spring up in Mexico because of the political upheaval of the early twentieth century; clashed with the forces of the Mexican President Carranza in 1915, led several attacks on Americans on either side of the border, and was chased by General Pershing and his troops in 1917.
Practice initiated by the Taft administration of encouraging bankers in the United States to aid debt-plagued governments in Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; later applied to President Wilson's frequent military interventions in Latin America.
John J. Pershing
General who was sent by President Wilson in 1917 to find Pancho Villa in Northern Mexico, without success; later commanded the first contingent of Americans sent to France during World War I.
Of the 1910 population of 92 million, more than 32 million were "hyphenated Americans," first- or second-generation immigrants who retained ties to their old countries.
British passenger liner sunk by a German U-boat, May 7, 1915, creating a diplomatic crisis and public outrage at the loss of 128 Americans (roughly 10 percent of the total aboard); Germany agreed to pay reparations, and the United States waited two more years to enter World War I.
William Jennings Bryan
Secretary of State during World War I under President Wilson; believed that America had a religious duty to advance democracy and moral progress in the world but was an avowed pacifist, only reluctantly confronted Germany after the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, and later resigned to join the peace movement as a private citizen.
Arabic and Sussex Pledges
Pledges made by the German government after the sinking of the British passenger vessel Arabic in 1915 and the French steamer Sussex in 1916, agreeing to pay an indemnity and offering public assurances that German U-boats would not sink passenger and merchant ships; the latter implied the virtual abandonment of submarine warfare.
Demand for a stronger American army and navy in face of the events of World War 1; the National Security League organized in 1914 promoted the cause of military preparedness.
National Defense Act
Act of 1916 that expanded the regular federal army from 90,000 to 175,000 and permitted gradual enlargement to 223,000, expanded the National Guard to 440,000, made provision for their training, and gave federal funds for summer training camps for civilians.
Naval Construction Act
Act of 1916 that authorized between $500 million and $600 million for a three-year navy expansion program.
Revenue Act of 1916
Doubled the basic income tax rate from 1 to 2 percent, lifted the surtax to a maximum of 13 percent (for a total of 15 percent) on incomes over Dollar 2 million, added an estate tax, levied a 12.5 percent tax on gross receipts of munitions makers, and added a new tax on corporation capital, surplus, and excess profits; these taxes placed the financial burden of military preparedness on the wealthy, which amounted to the most clear-cut victory of radical progressives in the entire Wilson period
"Peace without victory"
Term used by President Wilson in a speech before the Senate on January 22, 1917 in which he declared that only a "peace among equals" could endure, based on the principles of government by the consent of the governed, freedom of the seas, and disarmament.
From the German foreign secretary to the German minister in Mexico, February 1917, instructing him to offer to recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona for Mexico if it would fight the United States to divert attention from Germany in case of war.
The Liberty Loan Act added $5 billion to the national debt by creating "Liberty Bonds" to help fund the war effort.
Newton D. Baker
Secretary of war under President Wilson; he saw the mobilization of hundreds of thousands of young men as an opportunity for social engineering and created the Commission on Training Camp Activities (CTCA) to inculcate middle-class "progressive" virtues and values into recruits while they were undergoing their military training.
The Lever Food and Fuel Control Act of 1917 created a Food Administration headed by future president Herbert Hoover during World War I; the administration sought to raise agricultural production while reducing civilian use of foodstuffs in order to conduct the war efficiently, as exemplified by the slogan "food will win the war."
War Industries Board
Established in 1917 the WIB, headed by the Wall Street speculator Bernard Baruch, became the most important of all the economic mobilization agencies; the purchasing bureaus of the United States and Allied governments submitted their needs to the board, which set priorities and planned production, allocated raw materials, told manufacturers what to produce, order construction of new plants, and, with the approval of the president, fixed prices.
Large-scale migration of southern blacks during and after World War I to the North, where jobs had become available during the labor shortage of the war years.
Committee on Public Information
Established on April 14, 1917 and composed of the secretaries of state, war, and the navy, with the help of journalists, photographers, artists, entertainers, the committee used propaganda instead of censorship to convey the Allies' war aims to the people, and above all to the enemy, where it might encourage the forces of moderation.
Act of 1917 that set penalties of up to $10,000 and twenty years in prison for those who gave aid to the enemy, who tried to incite insubordination, disloyalty, or refusal of duty in the armed services, or who circulated false reports and statements with intent to interfere with the war effort.
Act of 1918 that extended the penalties of the Espionage act to those who did or said anything to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to advocate cutbacks in production, or who said, wrote, or printed anything "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive" about the American form of government, the Constitution, or the army and navy, effectively outlawing criticism of government leaders and war policies.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist leader who ardently opposed American intervention in World War I and was arrested and sentenced under the Espionage Act to twenty years in prison for encouraging draft resistance; while in jail in 1920 he polled nearly 1 million votes for president, his second run at the office.
Shenck v. United States
1919 U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the wartime Espionage and Sedition Acts; in the opinion he wrote for the case, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes set the now-familiar "clear and present danger" standard.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 3, 1918 peace between the Bolsheviks in control of the Russian government and Germany.
Party of Vladimir Lenin who in November 1917 led a revolution that took control of the Russian government, causing Russia to drop out of World War I.
President Woodrow Wilson's 1918 plan for peace after World War I; at the Versailles peace conference, however, he failed to incorporate all of the points into the treaty.
League of Nations
Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war established after World War I as part of the Treaty of Versailles; President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points'' speech to Congress in 1918 proposed the formation of the league.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Staunch Republican and reservationist who, as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, opposed the American membership in the League of Nations and effectively blocked it in the Senate.
War guilt clause
Clause in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany confessed responsibility for the war and thus for its entire costs.
Group of isolationist U.S. senators who fought ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, 1919-20, because of their opposition to American membership in the League of Nations.
Group of U.S. senators led by Majority Leader Henry Cabot Lodge who would only agree to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles subject to certain reservations, most notably the removal of Article X of the League of Nations Covenant.
Unprecedentedly lethal influenza epidemic of 1918 that killed more than 22 million people worldwide.
Governor of Massachusetts and future president who was made famous by his involvement in the Boston Police Strike, the most celebrated postwar labor dispute, when he declared that: "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time."
Fear among many Americans after World War I of Communists in particular and noncitizens in general, a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney-General whose house was partially destroyed by a bomb sent by a lunatic fringe group; he harbored an entrenched distrust of aliens and warned the public against a Bolshevik Red Menace.
Nickname for the transport ship that transported 249 people from New York for Finland on December 22 1919; included were assorted anarchists, criminals, and public charges, all of whom were deported to Russia without benefit of a court hearing.
Crusade for restrictions on immigration that was a legacy of the Red Scare.
Extreme nationalism that manifests itself in overly-assertive foreign policy.
A small yet vocal and influential group of public officials that embraced the idea of overseas possessions, regardless of the implications.
A naval captain who was a leading advocate of sea power and Western imperialism during the 1880s.
A historian and popular lecturer on Darwinism who developed racial corollaries from Darwin's ideas that bolstered imperialist theory; in American Political Ideas (1885) he stressed the superior character of "Anglo-Saxon" institutions as a reason for global domination.
A Congregationalist minister who added the sanction of religion to theories of racial and national superiority with his book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885).
William H. Seward
Secretary of state under President Andrew Johnson, who believed that the United States must inevitably exercise commercial domination "on the Pacific Ocean, and its islands and continents"; engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 as a way of removing the most recent colonial power from the New World.
Secretary of State William H. Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.
Tariff of 1894 that took sugar off the free list in the midst of a depression already damaging to the market for Cuban sugar; raw sugar prices collapsed, putting Cubans out of work and rekindling their desire for rebellion from Spanish rule.
William Randolph Hearst
Owner of the New York Journal who competed against Joseph Pulitzer and his paper the New York World, using events in Cuba and newfangled comic strips as fodder to draw in readers, emerging as the undisputed champion of sensationalistic "yellow" journalism.
Sensationalism in newspaper publishing that reached a peak in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal in the 1890s; the papers' accounts of events in Havana Harbor in 1898 led directly to the Spanish-American War.
de Lome letter
Letter from Spanish minister Depuy de Lome to a friend in Havana, stolen from the post office by a Cuban spy and published on February 9, 1898 by William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, that criticized President McKinley; De Lome resigned to prevent further embarrassment to his government but public opinion was already aroused against Spain.
Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, resulting in 266 deaths; the American public, assuming that the Spanish had mined the ship, clamored for war, and the Spanish-American War was declared two months later.
Amendment that disclaimed any American designs on Cuban territory; added in the Senate to a joint resolution by Congress in 1898 that declared Cuba independent and demanded withdrawal of Spanish forces
Navy Commodore who engaged Spain in the Philippines and destroyed or captured all the Spanish warships in Manila Bay, a spectacular and surprising victory that kindled expansionist fever early in the Spanish-American War.
President who helped transform the role of the United States in world affairs after the Spanish-American War, stretching both the Constitution and executive power to the limit, as well as attacking trusts and advocating conservation; served from 1901 to 1909 and then ran for president again in 1912.
The 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, led in battle in the Spanish-American War by Theodore Roosevelt; they were victorious in their only battle near Santiago, Cuba, and Roosevelt used the notoriety to aid his political career.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed by the United States and Spain on December 10, 1898, ending the Spanish American War but leaving the question of Philippine independence open.
Point of view in opposition to the expansionist tendencies inspired by the success of the Spanish American War; anti-imperialist groups argued that acquisition of other territories would undermine democracy and the traditional American principles of isolationism and self-government, and united in 1899 as the American Anti-Imperialist League.
"The White Man's Burden"
Poem critical of American imperialistic pursuits by British poet Rudyard Kipling, published by McClure's magazine in February 6, 1899.
Anti-imperialist groups united in 1899 as the American Anti-Imperialist League, attracting members who mainly belonged to an older generation.
William Howard Taft
Republican whose administrative posts, serving as civil governor of the Philippines under President McKinley and secretary of war under President Theodore Roosevelt, led to the White House; he was uncomfortable during his presidency from 1909 to 1913 and much preferred the law, which played itself out when he was later appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Harding.
Act of 1934 that offered the Philippines independence after a tutelary period of ten more years.
Passed on April 12, 1900, establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico and levying a temporary duty on imports from Puerto Rico.
In 1916 affirmed America's intention to grant the Philippines independence at an indefinite date and in 1917 granted United States citizenship to residents of the Philippines and made both houses of their legislature elective.
Dr. Walter Reed
Doctor who made an outstanding contribution to the health of people in tropical climates around the world by proving that yellow fever was carried by stegomyia Mosquitoes, leading to the effective control of the disease.
Passed in 1901; Reserved the United States' right to intervene in Cuban affairs and forced newly independent Cuba to host American naval bases on the island.
Policy outlined in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dispatched in 1899 to London, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, and a little later to Tokyo, Rome, and Paris, that proposed keeping China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis.
In 1900 a group of Chinese nationalists known to the Western world as Boxers ("Fists of Righteous Harmony") rebelled against foreign encroachments on China and laid siege to foreign embassies in Peking; an international expedition of British, German, Russian, Japanese, and American forces quelled the rebellion six weeks later and agreed to settle for an indemnity from China of approximately $333 million.
Clayton Bulwer Treaty
Treaty of 1850 in which the British agreed to acquire no more Central American territory and the United States joined them in agreeing to build or fortify a canal only by mutual consent.
Hay Pauncefote Treaty
Agreement between the U.S. and Britain that necessitated mutual consent to the construction of a transoceanic canal in Central America, came into effect with the building of the Panama Canal.
Treaty that opened the door for the building of the Panama Canal; in return for a Canal Zone six miles wide, the United States agreed to pay Colombia Dollar 10 million in cash and a rental fee of $250,000 a year; the United States Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty in 1903 but the Colombian Senate held out for $25 million in cash.
President Theodore Roosevelt announced in 1904, in what was essentially a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, that the United States could intervene militarily to prevent interference from European powers in the Western Hemisphere.
Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty signed on September 5, 1905, in which Russia acknowledged Japan's "predominant political, military, and economic interests in Korea" and both powers agreed to evacuate Manchuria.
Agreement from 1907 that stated that the United States would not exclude Japanese immigrants if Japan would voluntarily limit the number of immigrants coming to the United States.
Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meat-packing, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century; their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in progressive reform.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
Sometimes cited as the first of the muckrakers for his critical examination of the Standard Oil Company and other monopolies in the book Wealth against Commonwealth (1894).
Danish immigrant who was an influential New York journalist and muckraker, exposing slum conditions in the book How the Other Half Lives (1890).
Reporter whose articles on municipal corruption in McClure's magazine began to run in 1902 and were collected into the 1904 book The Shame of the Cities.
Muckraker whose History of the Standard Oil Company ran in McClure's magazine in 1904.
The nomination of candidates by the vote of party members; after South Carolina adopted the first statewide primary in 1896, the movement spread within two decades to nearly every state.
Procedure that allowed voters to enact laws directly if a designated number of voters petitioned to have a measure put on the ballot; first adopted by South Dakota in 1898.
Procedure that allowed the electorate to vote on an initiative up or down; first adopted by South Dakota in 1898.
Procedure whereby public officials could be removed by petition and vote; first adopted by Oregon in 1910.
Progressive reform from 1913 that required U.S. senators to be elected directly by voters; previously, senators were chosen by state legislatures.
The original "efficiency expert" who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911, preached the gospel of efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.
Analysis of worker efficiency using measurements like "time and motion'' studies to achieve greater productivity; introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911.
Robert M. LaFollette
Governor of Wisconsin who promoted the principle of government by experts, advocated progressivism, and established a Legislative Reference Bureau to provide research, advice, and help in the drafting of legislation.
Principle of efficient government by experts that was widely publicized and copied; introduced by Robert M. La Follette, Governor of Wisconsin.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Passed in 1890, the first law to restrict monopolistic trusts and business combinations; extended by the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914.
Gas and water socialism
Socialist solution to the problem of economic power and its abuse that was widely adopted at the municipal level in public utilities and transportation but was otherwise not seriously considered as a general policy.
The head of the National Consumers League who spearheaded the progressive crusade to regulate the hours of work for women.
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme court ruling in 1908 that upheld a ten-hour work day law for women largely on the basis of sociological data regarding the effects of long hours on the health and morals of women.
Period between the Eighteenth Amendment of 1919, the prohibition amendment that made the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal, and the Twenty-first Amendment of 1933, which repealed the prohibition.
The most successful political action group that forced the prohibition issue into the forefront of state and local elections and pioneered the strategy of the single-issue pressure group.
U.S. v. E.C. Knight and Company
1895 case against the sugar trust in which the Supreme Court declared manufacturing a strictly intrastate activity.
Northern Securities Company
A giant conglomerate of railroads that had a monopoly over the Great Northern and Northern Pacific lines; President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the company broken up in 1902, and it was dissolved by the Supreme Court in 1904.
Act passed by Congress in 1903, making it illegal for railroads to take as well as to give secret rebates to their favorite customers.
Hiring requirement that all workers in a business must be union members.
Proposal for railroad regulation enacted in 1906 that extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum freight rates.
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Novel published in 1906 that portrayed the filthy conditions in Chicago's meatpacking industry and led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act.
Meat Inspection Act
Passed in 1906 largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Passed in 1906, the first law to regulate manufacturing of food and medicines; prohibited dangerous additives and inaccurate labeling.
One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
William Howard Taft
Secretary of War under President Theodore Roosevelt hand-picked to carry out his policies in the White House; elected president in 1909 but was cast in a conservative role at a time when progressive sentiment was riding high in the country.
Platform of the Progressive party and slogan of former president Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912; stressed government activism, including regulation of trusts, conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs.
Act passed in 1910 that empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission for the first time to initiate rate changes, extended regulation to telephone and telegraph companies, and set up a Commerce Court to expedite appeals from the ICC rulings.
Academic and Progressive Democrat who was elected President of the United States in 1912 and again in 1916; his first term was concerned with trust-busting, tariff reform, and social justice issues, but his second term was caught up in World War I and his efforts on behalf of the Versailles Treaty.
Created when former president Theodore Roosevelt broke away from the Republican party to run for president again in 1912; the party supported progressive reforms similar to the Democrats but stopped short of seeking to eliminate trusts.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Tariff of 1913 which, in addition to lowering and even eliminating some tariffs, included provisions for the first federal income tax, made legal the same year by the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment.
Federal Reserve Act
Glass-Owen Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created a Federal Reserve System of regional banks and a Federal Reserve Board to stabilize the economy by regulating the supply of currency and controlling credit.
Federal Trade Commission Act
Established the Federal Trade Commission in 1914 to enforce existing antitrust laws that prohibited business combinations in restraint of trade.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Act passed in 1914, which outlawed such practices as price discrimination (charging different customers different prices for the same goods), "tying" agreements that limited the right of dealers to handle the products of competing manufacturers, interlocking directorates connecting corporations with a capital of more than $1 million (or banks with more than $5 million), and corporations' acquisition of stock in competing corporations.
La Follette Seaman's Act
Important piece of social-justice legislation that strengthened shipboard safety requirements, reduced the power of captains, set minimum food standards, and required regular wage payments.
Progressive social-justice champion who became the first Jewish member of the Supreme Court in 1916.
Federal Farm Loan Act
Enacted in 1916 that set up twelve Federal Land Banks, under the control of a Federal Farm Loan Board, that offered farmers loans of five to forty years' duration at low interest rates.
Federal Highways Act
Act of 1916 that provided dollar-matching contributions to states with highway departments that met certain federal standards, a sharp departure from Jacksonian opposition to internal improvements at federal expense.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Act signed by President Wilson in 1916 that excluded from interstate commerce goods manufactured by children under fourteen; later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the ground that regulation of interstate commerce could not extend to the conditions of labor.
Act of 1916 that required an eight-hour workday for railroad workers, with time and a half for overtime, and appointed a commission to study the problem of working conditions in the railroad industry.
Great American Desert
Nickname for the Great Plains region: considered a barren barrier between the pacific and Mississippi River, and therefore an appropriate place for Native Americans. This perception changed with the addition of the transcontinental railroads, the discovery of precious minerals, the end of Indian resistance, and the cattle industry's ascension.
Blacks who left the South after the collapse of Radical Republican rule in search of a haven from racism and poverty in the West. Their movement sparked much criticism from prominent black civil rights advocates such as Frederick Douglass who believed it set a precedent for the black race to flee from its problems rather than stand and fight them. Southern whites, fearing loss of labor supply, eventually blocked access to Mississippi River=attempt to maintain power and old hierarchy.
Community of Exodusters established in 1878 by Benjamin Singleton in Kansas
2 colored cavalry units established in 1866 by Congress and dispatched to the Western frontier, where they did jobs ranging from stringing telegraph lines to subduing hostile Indians, who gave them their name
Benjamin "Pap" Singleton
Born a slave in Tennessee, established the Dunlop Community in 1878 in Kansas with 200 exodusters on 7500 acres in Kansas, led the migration of blacks west
Miners in the California Gold Rush of 1849, followed the typical pattern of prospectors followed by camp followers, while the form of government went from lawlessness to vigilante rule to stability.
peddlers, desperadoes, prostitutes, and other vagrants who followed prospectors into an area shortly after a gold rush
Around 100,000 miners who went to Pikes Peak, Colorado after gold was discovered there in 1859
Huge discovery of gold and silver near Gold Hill, Nevada in 1859 and named by H.T.P. Comstock. Yielded over $300 million and interest in the lode was a reason for Nevada becoming a territory in 1861 and later a state in 1864
Canadian fur-trapper who the Comstock Lode is named after
AKA panning, this method was used during initial gold rushes beginning with the California Gold Rush of 1849, but was replaced with newer methods after placer deposits were exhausted
Mining method that replaced panning, water cannons destroyed topsoil and gravel, creating steep, barren canyons. Over 400,000 acres were destroyed with this method by 1880. Major mining companies controlled state legislature to maintain their position at the center of power.
Huge hydraulic mine in Northeastern California that removed around 41 million cubic yards of soil and left a 1 mile long by 350 deep canyon
Group of Central Valley (California) farmers formed in 1878 as response to the damage from industrial mining, had own militia, but used courts as main form of protest
Ex-miner and judge who ruled in favor of Woodruff in Woodruff v. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company on January 7, 1884, the first major environmental ruling in the nation, by outlawing the dumping of mining debris where it could effect farmland or navigable rivers.
Battle of Fort Laramie
Fighting that resumed on Indian lands due to emigrants encroaching upon Indian land on the plains rather than passing through it, a violation of the treaty signed by chiefs of the Plains tribes that had them accept definite tribal borders and leave white emigrants on their trails unmolested
Indian Peace Commission
Group established in 1867 from the "Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes" by a Congressional Committee charged in 1865 with investigating the causes of the Indian Wars. Ended up deciding that peace would best be accomplished at the expense of Indians, specifically by moving them onto remote reservations
Great Sioux War
Largest military event since Civil War and one of the largest against Indians in US history, spanning 15 months with 15 battles. Started when Custer brought an expedition of miners searching for gold onto Sioux land. Sioux were victorious in the Battle of Little Bighorn, representing the only Native American triumph during the Indian Wars. However, American soldiers soon regained the offensive, and forced Sioux off their land into reservations. Demonstrates fierce Native American resistance, but also Native American helplessness in the face of superior American numbers and resources
Ceremonial dance started by Wovoka (Jack Wilson) in 1888 as a way to hasten the rescue of Indians and the restoration of their lands that was the spark for the Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890. White authorities feared Native American unification through this practice and used violence to thwart it. This represents yet another misunderstanding between Native Americans and whites that resulted in conflict.
Colonel who led his untrained troops into Fort Lyon (Sand Creek), Colorado in 1864, who subsequently killed over 200 peaceful Indians who had been flying the white flag of truce, an event that was called the "foulest and most in-justifiable crime in the annals of America" by one American general. This was a sad incident of deliberate white violence toward Native Americans
American lieutenant who led an expedition of miners looking for gold into the Black Hills of South Dakota, leading to the outbreak of the Great Sioux War, the largest military event since the Civil war and one of the largest against Indians in American history. Later on, Custer's 210 men were annihilated by 2500 Sioux warriors at the Battle of Little Bighorn. Custer appears a key villain of the period, described by Tindall and Shi as a "reckless, glory seeking officer", but can also be viewed as a heroic martyr.
Head of the peaceful Nez Perce tribe in Idaho who led a 1500+ mile retreat when fighting started, was eventually exiled to Oklahoma but maintained dignity and strict discipline among his followers. He was forced to succumb, but did so nobly and out of necessity to find his family. He is another example of valiant Native American resistance to white encroachment, but ultimate helplessness.
Chiricahua Apache chief whose capture in 1886 after nearly 15 years of fighting with whites in the Southwest signaled the end of the Indian Wars
Jack Wilson (Wokova)
Paiute Indian who, in a state of delirium, envisioned a deliverer coming to save the Indians and restored their lands, and thus started the Ghost Dance craze in 1888
Helen Hunt Jackson
Author of A Century of Dishonour in 1881, a text that was critical of the American Indian policy
Legislation passed in 1906 that gave immediate citizenship to Indians who live apart from their tribe and made tribe members with land titles subject to state and federal legislation, attempt by the American government to "Americanize" Indians
Massachusetts senator who wrote the Dawes Severalty Act in 1887
Dawes Severalty Act
Act sponsored by Mass. Senator Henry Dawes that divided land of any tribe, granting 160 acres to each head of a a family and lesser amounts to others and stated that if the government holds someone's property for 25 years, at the end of the 25 years the owner of the land would get title and citizenship
Lean and rangy breed of cattle that came out of natural selection and contact with scrub cattle, had little value as food
Western towns built off of the burgeoning cattle industry and followed the railroads west. Besides stockyards, Cowtowns could have hotels, banks, and office buildings among other businesses
Illinois livestock dealer who wanted to move the cattle trade west and this process by creating the first successful cowtown in Abilene, KS in 1867
Chicago meat packer who created the first refrigerated railway car in 1869, allowing cattle to be killed on the Great Plains and then shipped safely East
Developed the first mechanical refrigerator in 1878, making him a lot of money and giving the cattle industry a major stimulus
Illinois farmer who invented the barbed wire fence in 1873, signaling the end of the open range as cattle became a big business with large companies
Barbed Wire Wars
Battles between small and large ranchers, in where the small ranchers, angry at their lack of land due to the dominance of the larger ranchers, cut the fences of the larger ranchers in order to sabotage their cattle, these tensions helped to end the open range
Conflict between small and large ranchers in central Texas during 1883 and 1884. Several ranchers died and others were wounded. Prompted state legislation to band fence-cutting. Example of attempt of small ranchers to maintain power-->ineffective because it was desperate and utilized violence and not a permanent solution
Passed in 1862, land could be bought at $1.25 per acre, and land occupied for at least five years could be claimed for free
Passed in 1901, attempted to create irrigable land by starting the Bureau of Reclamation, who took the money from land sales in 16 states to create public works projects such as the Hoover Dam and the Roosevelt Dam. Created by Francis Newlands
Families of farmers on the Great Plains who established homesteads (sod houses) but struggled with the tough and unforgiving environment of the West and the expensive equipment, lowered crop prices, land that resisted planting, lack of timber, and high crop and interest rates on loans. Only a small percentage of them that started wealthy were able to become successful and establish bonanza farms.
Another name for the Great Plains, an area that was particularly hard to settle because of heavily sodded land, high interest and freight rates on loans, a lack of timber, capital outlay on farming devices, and constant battles with the elements
Inventor of the chilled-iron plow in 1868, a "sodbuster" that made plowing in the Great Plains much easier
Plow created in 1868 by James Oliver in Indiana, this "sodbuster" made plowing in the Great Plains much easier
Huge farms, typically in California, the Dakotas, and Minnesota, that had machinery for mass production and became marvels of the time
Frederick Jackson Turner
Developed an influential frontier thesis in his 1893 work "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Influential thesis established in 1893 by Frederick Jackson Turner in "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", said that the frontier shaped national character, but was gone 100 years after the Constitution was written, that the frontier was the western source of democratic politics, open society, individualism, and unfettered economy, but overstated the homogenizing effects of the frontier and ignored the role of women and ethnic minorities in shaping the west, also stated that the west post-1890 would be very different because the frontier experience is over
Attitude of getting in, getting rich, and getting out that was pervasive in the West
Business theory where one company drives the production of all things necessary to produce a certain product; Rockefeller was best at this
A corporate organization in which stockholders allow a small group of trustees to control the company in exchange for trust certificates
A company that controls other companies by holding a large portion of their stock
National Labor Union
The first large American labor union that fought for political rights like greenbackism and 8-hour workdays rather than a utopian ideal
Knights of Labor
All-encompassing labor union founded by Uriah Stepens that included all members of the working class, even women, in its strikes
American Federation of Labor
Originally composed of autonomous craft unions, this labor union allowed some industrial unions into their organization that used strikes in efforts to make economic gains instead of focusing on utopian ideas.
A more moderate ideology than Communism, Socialism believed that private property should not be banned, and that there should not be a violent revolution, but that workers deserved important rights, and that unions needed to have the same (or greater) clout than corporations
Belief that once the government was destroyed, a utopia would rise from the ashes where men would govern themselves
A group of people whose ultimate goal was to destroy the government and replace it with a union
Railroad robber baron who bought railroads, made aesthetic improvements, and sold them for a profit even though the railroad almost always went bankrupt after he sold it
A great consolidator of railroads who had power in the industry in New York City and Chicago
Founder of the Standard Oil Company, which eventually had a monopoly over the industry and mastered two new economic institutions, the financial trust and the holding company.
A skilled businessman who focused on the steel industry and wrote "The Gospel of Wealth"
A wealthy investment banker who wielded power over the companies whose stock he held and who consolidated the steel and iron industry to form the United States Steel Corporation
Richard Sears & Alvah Roebuck
Co-creators of the first mail-order catalog, which allowed rural people access to goods originally only available to city dwellers
Founder of Knights of Labor who organized the union to be steeped in mystery and spirituality, so as to strengthen the workers' attachment to the cause. Very egalitarian.
Weak, indecisive leader of the Knights of Labor who was overly sensitive and unsure on major issues, like the use of strikes; ironically, the Knights saw their greatest period of growth under him
Pragmatic founder and leader of the AFL, a successful American union. Believed only in concrete economic gains, and used strikes to gain favorable trade agreements, closed shops, and the like. Tried to have all workers unionize, but mainly only succeeded in gathering skilled laborers.
Leader of the American Railway Union who helped organize the Pullman Strike, was jailed for impeding the spread of mail, and who ran for president as a socialist, gaining a large portion of the vote in two elections
A passionate advocate for worker's rights who supported marches and strikes and sometimes spent time in jail for her activism following her tragic early life.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Created thesis stating that cheap land in the west allowed for the growing population of cities to expand and release
Otis Elevator Company
Installed first electric elevator, allowing for taller buildings.
Areas where many middle-class people resided that allowed for quick travel into the city for either business or entertainment.
"Dumbbell" Tenement Houses
Structures in the city which were grouped tightly together but were required to have two-foot-wide air shafts between each other, creating the appearance of a dumbbell shape if viewed from above. These tenement houses were cramped and provided little ventilation, which did more harm than good and led to many fires.
controlled the politics of the cities, engaging in questionable political and economical deals, however they did good as well for the common people. They got food, gave money to the poor, and organized community events.
Used cleanup campaigns throughout the city, and helped persuade city governments to: clean the water and sewage systems, install city trash collection, use electric streetcars instead of horses, and banish hogs and cattle. Public water and sewage systems separated urban people from agriculture.
Contract Labor Act of 1864
The federal government encouraged immigration by helping to pay an immigrant's passage to the United States. Repealed in 1868.
State-run receiving center in the port of New York for immigration. Full of corruption, lots of exploitation of immigrants. Closed in 1890 after a Congressional investigation.
Instituted by the federal Bureau of Immigration to replace Castle Garden in receiving immigrants on "Ellis" Island, just south of Manhattan. Opened in 1892.
Agents exploited immigrants by offering them some whiskey and a job, and then taking much of the immigrant's wages.
Little Hungary, Little Italy, Chinatown
Enclaves of immigrants that provided transitional communities from the "Old World" to the "New World".
American Protective Association
strongest among Protestant centers along the upper Mississippi River Valley. This association wanted restrictions on immigration, tighter requirements for naturalization, workplaces refusing employment of Catholics or aliens, and teaching the "American" language in schools.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Representative from Massachusetts wanted to exclude illiterate foreigners.
Leader of the Workingmen's party, he strongly fought against the Chinese because Chinese immigrants would accept lower wages than whites, and they also perpetuated "those disgusting habits of thrift, industry, and self-denial".
Chinese Exclusion Act
Congress overrode veto of President Chester A. Arthur in 1882 to pass this bill which prevented Chinese immigrants from entering the country for ten years. Periodically renewed until an indefinite extension in 1902. Then in 1943 all preventions against Chinese immigration were removed.
Chester A. Arthur
Vetoed the Chinese Exclusion Act, but his veto was overridden by Congress
Immigration center, counterpart to Ellis Island in San Francisco Bay in California.
Vaudeville "Variety" Shows
Featured comedians, singers, musicians, blackface minstrels, farcical plays, animal acts, jugglers, gymnasts, dancers, mimes, and magicians. Attracted citizens of all types
Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League
Accused saloons of contributing to alcoholism, divorce, crime, as well as missing work.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Designed Central Park in New York City. he wanted to make parks into places that would "promote social stability and cohesion".
Formal name for outdoor walking that referred to women's only option for excercise before the Civil War.
Dr. James Naismith
Created basketball in 1891 as an indoor game for winter to be played between football and baseball.
Father of organized baseball. Formed the Knickerboxer Base Ball Club of New York in 1845.
African-American exhibition baseball team went on a national tour in 1887. They defeated the New Yorks, but were refused the ability to play in St. Louis, Detroit, and Chicago due to negrophobia.
Pierre de Coubertin
Called for revival of ancient Olympic Games in 1892, officially revived in 1896.
Hampton Institute in Virginia
Vocational school that trained Booker T. Washington
Morrill Act of 1862
Granted each state 30,000 acres per representative and senator, income from this was then used to be applied to teaching agriculture and mechanic arts in the "land-grant" colleges.
Opened in 1865. First women's college to teach by the same standards as the best men's colleges
Opened in the 1870s, first women's college to set the same requirements as men's colleges.
John Hopkins University
First university to be chiefly concerned with graduate work
Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species"
Written 1859. Species evolved through the process of "natural selection". Those beings that were able to adapt and use reason, quickness, and shrewdness to survive have progressed rather than fallen off to the side.
first major prophet of Social Darwinism, influenced American thought. He coined the term "survival of the fittest". Thought Social Darwinism needed a "hands-off" policy for the government, because helping the "unfit" survive goes against the process of natural selection. Only voluntary charity was acceptable, and even this could be of doubtful value.
Lester Frank Ward
The founder of Reform Darwinism. He was a Washington civil servant who worked his way up from poverty. Wrote Dynamic Sociology (1883) that discussed how Spencer and Darwin didn't account for the human brain in their theories of natural selection. Ward believed that cooperation, not competition would promote progress and that republican govt. was good, b/c it could get rid of poverty and promote education to the masses.
Founded pragmatism in his book Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. Was a Harvard professor who believed that ideas gained their validity not from their inherent truth but from their social consequences and practical applications.
(William James' successor). He preferred the term instrumentalism instead of pragmatism. He believed that ideas were instruments for action, especially social reform, and that education was the key to progressing to economic democracy.
Writers during the post-Civil War era who responded to changes in society by expressing nostalgia of people moving from rural to urban areas and longing to return to their rural homes.
Sarah Orne Jewett
A local colorist author who wrote The Country of the Pointed Firs.
The best known local colorist author. Born in Missouri, he became known for the humor in his writings and speeches on the lecture ciruit. He was first great American author born west of the Appalachian Mountains. His masterpiece The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is considered the beginning of uniquely American literature.
Began in the 1890s by young rebels who brought scientific determinism into literature and had a very down-to-earth view on human beings, shocking people
Portrayed people placed in positions beyond their control
Promoted nature over societal confines
Was the most shocking author of the literary naturalists because he wrote about protagonists who sinned without feeling guilty and without consequences.
Hated the inequality b/t the rich and poor in cities and wrote Progress and Poverty (1879). He believed that everyone had the same right to land and no one had the right to place value on or profit from private property.
Wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class. He believed that with industrialized society, property became synonymous with one's reputation and spending time nonproductively was evidence of wealth and success. Veblen said that these aspects created businessmen who were wasteful and bad at organizing.
Henry Ward Beecher
Pastor of the fashionable Plymouth Congregational Church in Brooklyn who preached success, social Darwinism, and the unworthiness of the poor.
Came to the U.S. from Great Britain in the 1850s and grew a lot in the 1870s. One of the organizations of the time that devoted its recourse to community service and care of the unfortunate.
Founded in London in 1878 and came to the U.S. in 1879. Like the YMCA, it also was one of the organizations of the time that devoted its recourse to community service and care of the unfortunate.
A pastor from Columbus, Ohio who preached that true Christianity lies in the principle that "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Argued for the right of laborers to organize and was opposed to class distinctions because he believed that they split congregations.
A Baptist minister at the Colgate-Rochester Theological Seminary who was recognized as the intellectual leader of the social-gospelers. He wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), which stated that the kingdom of God existed in Churches and in all other parts of life as well.
Residential and community centers that were staffed mainly by young middle-class idealists and aimed to improve the lives of slum dwellers. Included Jane Addams and Ellen Starr's Hull House in Chicago, Robert A. Woods' South End House in Boston, and Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York. Settlement-Houses realized that with the slums growing, they needed political support to make improvements, so they organized support for housing laws, public playgrounds, anti-child labor laws, etc.
A settlement-house ran by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr in Chicago that sought to use pragmatism to aid the needs of the poor.
Ran the Hull House settlement-house in Chicago. She rejected the "do-good" ideas of religious reformers and didn't want to act like she knew what was best for poor immigrants--She used pragmatism instead of preaching. She recieved the Nobel Piece Prize in 1931 for her work in the peace movement.
National Women's Suffrage Association
Founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton to focus on women's suffrage and other issues.
American Women's Suffrage Association
Founded by activists after the National Women Suffrage Association which only focused on women's suffrage.
National American Women's Suffrage Association
Founded in 1890 after 3 years of negotiations between members of the NWSA and AWSA. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was its first president, succeeded by Susan B. Anthony.
Anna Howard Shaw & Carrie Chapman Catt
Led the new generation of women's rights activists after Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton got too old
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Tied together women's clubs in 1890, including Julia Ward Howe's New England Women's Club and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA).
National Women's Trade League
Founded in 1903, it brought together educated middle-class women to unionize.
"Substantative Due Process"
Allowed judges to overturn laws that deprived persons of property to an unreasonable degree and thereby violated due process. Resulted from the Supreme Court's reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment.
Reformers, social gospelers, and Populists endorsed this idea, which stated that the govt. should use positive action to promote public interests and improve the lives of its citizens.
The Gilded Age
novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner that criticised the politics of
the time. The manuscript is the origin of the moniker of "Gilded" in describing the 1870s to
Relatively heterogeneous political party that attracted southern whites,
immigrants, Catholics, Jews, freethinkers, skeptics, and others who found the Republicans
Political party based in New England that consisted of Protestants of British
descent, Yankees of the Civil War, and African Americans. Associated with nativism and
considered the "Party of Morality." Begin calling themselves "Grand Old Party" (GOP).
Republicans who continued to support Grant during the scandals of his administration.
Supported Radical Reconstruction and "spoils system."
A division of the Republican Party "half loyal to Grant and half committed to reform of the spoils system.
Civil Service Reform
emergence of merit based bureaucracy in America and an issue of Hayes' campaign of 1876.
New York Customhouse Episode
A government inquiry into the corrupt federal customhouses in
1877 and 1878, in which future president Chester A. Arthur was removed from his
customhouse position for distributing partisan political favors.
1878 Bland-Allison Act
instituted a limited expansion of silver currency. Hayes attempted to veto the act but was overruled by Congress
1883, set up a Civil Service department independent from the Cabinet and a step
towards merit-based appointments. Under presidency of Arthur and guidance of George Pendleton.
letters that revealed presidential candidate Blaine as in the pocket of railroad companies.
Republicans that "bolted" when scandal over Blaine emerged
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
Supreme Court case in 1886 that
denied state's rights to regulate railroads. Prompted Congress to take action.
Interstate Commerce Commission
an independent federal regulatory commission
applying to railroads set up by Congress in 1887 under Cleveland
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890 act that opposed activities in "restraint of trade." Mainly to prevent monopolies.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890 act that increased silver coinage and set the stage for later currency conflict.
McKinley Tariff Act
1890, raised duties on manufactured goods, put high duties on imported
agriculture products, sugar put on duty-free list while compensating sugar farmers, and attempted to pressure countries to lower tariffs on American goods. Unpopular.
huge farms that employed hundreds of seasonal workers.
The Granger Movement
movement founded in 1867 as a response to isolation of farmers. Goal:
free farmers from grip of processors and railroads. Indirectly involved in politics through third parties. Focused on more affluent farmers. Gradually declined.
Munn v. Illinois
1877 Supreme Court Case that granted the right to regulate property "clothed in
Grassroots local organization representing marginal farmers. Emphasized
political action. Included African Americans (especially sharecroppers) and women. Social and economic policies. Declined under pressure of large businesses (i.e. railroads and bankers) and the failure of the Alliance Exchange and mismanagement.
The Peoples' Party (Populist Party)
One of the political results of the Farmers' Alliances.
Challenged Western politics. Eventually formed into a national third party during the
Election of 1892. Focused on finance, transportation, and land. Nominated James B. Weaver
The Depression of 1893
Crisis catalyzed by railroad collapse in 1893. Farm regions devastated.
Many unskilled workers lost jobs and over 600 banks closed. Workers on strike, millions of Americans suddenly unemployed. Severe setback for Democrats. Populists gain representatives in Congress.
A protest group during the Depression of 1893 led by Populist Jacob Coxey.
Created federal fear of populism and "hayseed socialists."
The Dingley Tariff of 1897
highest ever tariff that helped the inflation of currency. Instated under McKinley
Gold Standard Act
Act in 1900 that marked the end of the silver movement (spurred by South
African, Canadian, and Yukon gold rushes).
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican president 1877-1881. Term overshadowed by "corrupt
bargain" of 1876. Promoted Civil Service Reform and fought against government corruption. Eventually more or less abandoned by Republicans
Republican. Leader of the Stalwarts. "Ruthless power broker."
James G. Blaine
Republican. Leader of the Half-Breeds. Republican nominee for president 1884,
campaign damaged by "Mulligan Letters" and allegations of anti-Catholicism. Overshadowed Harrison as Secretary of State 1889-1893.
Chester A. Arthur
Stalwart Republican. Convicted of political corruption in New York
Customhouse Affair. Later became vice-president for James A. Garfield, and president in 1881 (to 1885) upon Garfield's assassination. Supported civil service and tariff reform. Vetoed the Chinese Exclusion Act (though his veto was overrode by Congress).
Republican. Convicted of political corruption in New York Customhouse Affair
James A. Garfield
One of outstanding leaders in the House. Nominated for president 1880,
elected 1881, assassinated 1881 by Charles Guiteau
Winfield Scott Hancock
Democratic candidate in the Election of 1880. Union commander at
Gettysburg. Attempt to counter Republican accusations based on the Civil War.
Stalwart. Assassin of Garfield. His Stalwart political motivation proved damaging to the Stalwarts.
"Gentleman George" Pendleton
Sponsored and engineered the Pendleton Civil Service Act.
Stephen Grover Cleveland
Democratic New Yorker nominated as a reform candidate in the
1884 Elections. Despite some scandal, he was elected and was president from 1885-1889. Believed in limited government but had a mixed civil service record. Regulated railroads, limited pensions, and reformed the tariff. Was reelected in 1892 and was president from 1893-1897 just as the U.S. plunged into currency crisis and economic depression.
Republican nominee and victor in the election of 1888 against Cleveland.
President from 1889-1893. Drained the surplus. Under Harrison, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act were passed, and the tariff was raised.
Sir Lionel Sackville-West
undermined Cleveland's 1888
campaign by revealing British support for Cleveland.
Ohio Senator that drafted the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Sherman Silver
Republican. In 1890 piloted the McKinley tariff to raise duties on
manufactured goods. Little public support for the tariff and McKinley lost his seat in the House in 1890. In 1896, McKinley was nominated for president on a gold-platform. Won the election. Became president in 1897.
Charles W. Macune
President of the Farmers' Alliances in 1887. Promoted the Alliance
exchange, which failed.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
a leader of the farm protest movement (especially in Kansas where the
movement was particularly successful). Brilliant public speaker.
Jeremiah Simpson (Sockless Jerry)
Agrarian radical. Brilliant public speaker. Won a seat in Congress.
Thomas E. Watson
Southern Alliance leader. Promoted alliance between sharecroppers and
white farmers. Nominated for Vice President in the election of 1896.
James B. Weaver
Iowan nominee for the third party Populists in the election of 1892. Carried
four states and 1 million votes.
Jacob S. Coxey
Populist. Organized "Coxey's Army" in protest against the government during
the Depression of 1893
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic silver-platform candidate in the election of 1896. Brilliant
orator. Fractured the Democratic party. Populists also backed Bryan. Carried West and South, but lost election.
John M. Palmer
the nominee of the fractured Democrats in 1896.
Moderate. Introduced Kansas-Nebraska Act and promoted popular sovereignty
Election of 1856
James Buchanan (Democrat) won narrowly. First election for the Republican party, also big for the Know-Nothings
John Brown's Raid
Abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Ended up with 5 pro-slavery men killed. Made the Kansas Border War a national issue
Pro-Slavery Constitution proposed for readmitting Kansas into the Union
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri
Confederate attack, would not let Lincoln resupply the Fort. Eventually soldiers inside surrendered. "Loyal" states joined up to fight Confederacy, Lincoln declared blockade on Southern ports - proclamation of War.
Battle of Pea Ridge
Affirmed Union Control in Missouri
Population, more states, industrialization, navy
First Battle of Bull Run
Union tried for offensive but failed, Confederates essentially won but not terribly decisive. Showed everyone the harsh reality of war
this was the strategy for the Union army brainchilded by General Winfield Scott which involved choking off the main resources of the Confederate army and had 3 main goals: gain control of the Mississippi River (this would cut the Confederacy into 2 parts), blockade the Southern ports, and to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond while defending D.C.
Both sides resorted to draft - but more need for encouragement in the Confederacy. Made Civil War a "Rich man's war and a poor man's fight"
Western Confederate States
Lincoln's Volunteer Units to West
Used to protect shipments of gold and silver, gain support for the War and his presidency
Anti-slavery fighters along the Kansas-Missouri Border
Confederates attacked vulnerable Union troops led by Grant, but Johnston was wounded so they were unable to decimate the Union troops. Union troops overtook Confederates the next day
Confident and poised but overly cautious. Led campaign on Richmond but waited for final strike and lost the chance
Second Battle of Bull Run
Pope led Union forces to defend Washington - didn't know he was facing armies of both Lee and Jackson - failed and replaced by McLellan who took up forts around D.C.
Battle at Antietam
Confederates eventually forced to retreat. "Bloodiest day in American history". Lincoln removed McLellan for failing to make decisive victory, but made Lincoln more inspired to write the Emancipation Proclamation
Union troops lost terribly
Oversaw distribution of medicine to Union troops, and helped found American Red Cross
Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
Provided federal aid to state colleges of "agriculture and mechanic arts"
Funding Tactics for the Union
Raising taxes, printing money, borrowing
Legal Tender Act of 1862
To finance the Civil war, the federal government authorized the creation of paper money not redeemable in silver or gold through this bill. About $430 million worth of "greenbacks" were put out in circulation, and this money by law had to be accepted for all taxes, debts and other obligations- even those contracted prior to the passage of this act
Democrats who just wanted to end the fighting even if the Union lost
Habeas Corpus Act of 1863
Suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus
Confederates led by Lee and Jackson went against Union, Confederates won but it led to Jackson's death
Grant captured 30,000 Confederates here in his campaign to sever the Confederacy
Battle of Gettysburg
Location, mostly by chance. Confederates suffered terrible losses and Lee lost 1/3 of his army. Confederates in Vicksburg surrendered around the same time
Union victory in this region led to LIncoln appointing Grant to Lt. General and General-in-Chief
Battle of Nashville
Union destroyed "Confederate front west of the Appalachians"
Lee forced to surrender for Confederacy on April 9, 1865
National Banking Act
Created uniform system of banking and bank-note currency and helped finance the war
Helped freed black citizens who had nothing with which to start their new life and lived in destitution. Had its own court for labor disputes and land titles, also agents could supervise trials w/ blacks in different courts
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Under Lincoln: Rebel states could form Union government when 10% of those who voted in 1860 in the state pledged loyalty - also gave pardon, except to officers
Required majority of white male citizens declare allegiance and only those to take "ironclad oath" of past allegiance would vote/serve in state constitutional conventions
Proposed Lincoln was unjustly controlling readmittance to the Union to rig his re-election
Lincoln's View of Reconstruction
Lincoln did not want a radical reconstruction of southern economic and social life
War Democrat - full of prejudices and unable to control himself. Very racist, raised in south - advocate for small farmers. Strict construction of Constitution and wanted limited government
Proclamation of Amnesty (1865)
Excluded from pardon those that Lincoln already had, and excluded people with property worth $20,000 +
By their acts of secession, these states continued to exist but gave up "all civil and political rights under the Constitution" (and Congress had the power to decide on when these rights would be restored)
Civil Rights Act (March 1866)
Entitled "all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed" to "full and equal benefit of all laws"
Says that no state can "abridge the privileges of immunities of citizens" to deprive any person "of life, liberty, or property without due process of law"
Military Reconstruction Act
Formation to start Southern governments all over again
Command of the Army Act
All orders from Commander-in-Chief must go through the General of the army
Tenure of Office Act
Required Senate Permission for President to remove any officeholder whose appointment the Senate had confirmed
Third Reconstruction Act
People needed to pass examination for eligibility, not just oath of loyalty
Ratified 1870. "Forbade the states to deny any person the vote on grounds of 'race, color, or previous condition of servitude'"
Encouraged Republican support throughout the South, gained strong support throughout the south, gained strong support especially from African-Americans and loyal whites
Northerners who went South after the war because they saw economic opportunity there
Native white Republicans opposed to secession and in favor of Radical Republican Reconstruction
Election of 1868
Ulysses Grant joins Republican Party as nominee - emphasizes necessity for black suffrage in the South and payment of the national debt. Grant is a "working-man"
Endorsed by Democratic nominee - government should pay back war bonds in full current paper money because they were paid for in depreciated paper money
Public Credit Act
Endorsed principle that debt should be paid off in coins, "hard money" - not paper
Refunding Act of 1870
Treasury could replace 6% Civil War bonds with new bond issue promising purchasers return of 4-5% gold
3 Enforcement Acts
1.) Said nobody could prevent anyone's right to vote 2.) Prohibited activities of groups such as the KKK. 3.) Said President could suspend habeas corpus to "suppress armed combinations"
Free trade, gold redemption for paper money, stable currency, end of federal Reconstruction in South
Election of 1872
Democrats tried to get Greely in, but Grant re-elected with greater majority
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Specie Resumption Act of 1875
Paper money could be exchanged for gold. Made people who wanted an inflationary policy very angry
Election of 1876
Tilden (Democrat) vs. Hayes (Republican) - Seemed to be stacked for Tilden but swung to Hayes, especially as a result of the Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
Unofficial agreement - Democrats would not oppose Hayes' election, accept Reconstruction amendments including Civil Rights, and stop partisan attacks against Republicans. If Republicans said Hayes would take last federal troops and therefore Republican governments out of the South. (This emphasizes the power of Congress over Executive Branch at this time. Also, after Hayes' election, the Democrats ignored most of the terms)