A membrane bound body within the cytoplasm which separate the various metabolic functions that occur within the cell.
Bound by the nuclear envelope (two phospholipid bilayers).
Contains DNA, typically in form of Chromatin. Histones work to organize the Chromatin into Chromosomes during cell division.
Contains one or more Nucleoli, concentrations of DNA in the process of manufacturing Ribosome parts.
Manufactured in the nucleus.
Consist of RNA molecules and proteins.
In the cytoplasm, they assist in the assembly of amino acids into proteins.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes are present.
Creates glycoproteins by attaching polysaccharides to polypeptides as they are assembled by the ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes are not present.
Responsible for synthesis of lipids and hormones (in cells which secrete these substances), and is involved in the breakdown of toxins, drugs and toxic by-products of cellular reactions (in liver cells).
Modify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles.
Vesicles migrate to and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the outside of the cell.
Vesicles that originate in the Golgi Apparatus.
Contain digestive enzymes; break down food, cellular debris, and foreign invaders.
Low pH inside so that enzymes function properly.
Not present in plant cells.
Break down substances such as Hydrogen Peroxide, Fatty Acids, and Amino Acids.
Common in liver and kidney cells, where they break down toxic substances.
Aerobic respiration occurs here; generates ATP via energy obtained from carbohydrates.
Carry out Photosynthesis, plant process of incorporating energy from sunlight into carbohydrates.
Made of the protein Tubulin.
Provide support and motility for cellular activities.
Found in the spindle apparatus, flagella, and cilia.
Provide support for maintaining the shape of the cell.
Made of the protein actin and are involved in cell motility.
Found in muscle cells, and in cells that move by changing shape, such as phagocytes.
Internal structure of the cytoplasm, consists of Microtubules, Intermediate Filaments, and Microfilaments.
Flagella and Cilia
Protrude from the cell membrane and make wavelike movements.
Classified by length - Flagella are long and few, Cilia are short and many.
Composed of microtubules.
Centrioles and Basal bodies
Act as Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs).
Basal bodies coordinate flagella and Cilia.
Plant cells lack Centrioles, and only lower plant cells have Basal bodies.
Fluid-filled storage bodies.