Chapter 4 Muscular System ALL

194 terms by stacey252

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muscul/o

muscle

my/o

muscle

myos/o

muscle

fasci/o

fascia

ten/o

tendon

tend/o

tendon

tendin/o

tendon

-cele

hernia

fasci/o

fascia

fibr/o

fibrous connective tissue

-ia

condition

-ic

pertaining to

kines/o

movement

kinesi/o

movement

-plegia

paralysis

-rrhexis

rupture

tax/o

coordination

ton/o

muscle tension or tone

tri-

three

asthenia

weakness

condyl/o

condyle (rounded surface at the end of a bone)

electro/o

electricity

-plegia

paralysis

cardi/o

heart

quadr/i

four

hemi-

half

-paresis

partial paralysis

-plasty

surgical repair

-rrhaphy

surgical suturing

-otomy

surgical incision

-ectomy

surgical removal

-lysis

destruction

-desis

bind together

-penia

deficiency

duct

to lead

-ion

action

ad-

toward

ab-

away from

ex-

away from

-dynia

pain

-ceps

head

poly-

many

sarc/o

flesh

a-

without

clon/o

to move violently

exercise physiologist

specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

neurologist

physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function

physiatrist

physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehab with the focus on restoring function

rheumatologist

physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

sports medicine physician

specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles

fasciitis

inflammation of a fascia

fibromyalgia syndrome

debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain

tenodynia

pain in a tendon

tendinitis

inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

chronic fatigue syndrome

disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, they are always tired

adhesion

band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

atrophy

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

myalgia

tenderness or pain in the muscles

myocele

herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myolysis

degeneration of muscle tissue

myomalacia

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

myorrhexis

rupture or tearing of a muscle

polymyositis

muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

sarcopenia

loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

muscle tone

the state of balanced muscle tension (contraction and relaxation) that makes normal, posture, coordination, and movement possible

atonic

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

dystonia

condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

hypertonia

condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles

hypotonia

condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

myotonia

neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

ataxia

the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement

dystaxia

mild form of ataxia

contracture

permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

intermittent claudication

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

spasm

sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscle

cramp

localized muscle spasm named for its cause

spasmodic torticollis

stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

bradykinesia

extreme slowness in movement

dyskinesia

distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm

hyperkinesia

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

myoclonus

sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

singultus

myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm

myasthenia gravis

chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

muscular dystrophy

describes a group of more than 30 genetic disease that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system

duchenne muscular dystrophy

most common form of muscular dystrophy, affects boys between 3 - 5 years

becker muscular dystrophy

very similar to but less severe than duchenne muscular dystrophy

repetitive stress disorders

variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motion performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports

compartment syndrome

involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles

overuse injuries

minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal

overuse tendinitis

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint

stress fractures

considered overuse injuries

myofascial pain syndrome

chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body

trigger points

tender areas that most commonly develop where the fascia comes into contact with a muscle

referred pain

pain that originates in one area of the body but is felt in another

impingement syndrome

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

rotator cuff tendinitis

an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff

ruptured rotator cuff

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues

carpal tunnel syndrome

symptoms occur when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen

carpal tunnel release

surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure

ganglion cyst

harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

epicondylitis

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

heel spur

calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis

plantar fasciitis

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot

sprain

an injury to a joint such as ankle, knee or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament

shin splint

painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)

hamstring injury

can be a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee

achilles tendinitis

a painful inflammation of the achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon

spinal cord injury

determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury

paralysis

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply

myoparesis

weakness or slight muscular paralysis

hemiparesis

slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiplegia

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body

paraplegia

is the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities

cardioplegia

paralysis of heart muscle

deep tendon reflexes

tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon

range of motion testing

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength

electromyography

diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electroneuromyography

diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle

antispasmodic

administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder

skeletal muscle relaxant

administered to relax certain muscles and to relive the stiffness, pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

neuromuscular blocker

drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

ergonomics

study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

occupational therapy

consists of activities to promote recovery and rehab to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living

physical therapy

treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods to improve circulation, flexibility, and muscular strength

myofascial release

specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease pain of disorders like fibromyalgia

therapeutic ultrasound

utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep with muscle tissue

rest, ice, compression, and elevation

R.I.C.E

fasciotomy

surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fascioplasty

the surgical repair of fascia

tenodesis

surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

tenolysis

release of a tendon from adhesions

tenectomy

surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath

tenoplasty

surgical repair of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

tenotomy

surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle, such as strabismus

myectomy

surgical excision of a portion of a muscle

myoplasty

surgical repair of a muscle

myorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a muscle wound

myotomy

surgical incision into a muscle

muscle fibers

cells that make up the muscles

fascia

sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles

myofascial

pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia

tendon

narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

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