an approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically.
systematic explanation of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows us to predict new facts, and permits us to exercise a degree of control over the phenomenon.
School of psychology that stressed the basic units of experience and the combination in which they occur [ Tichtner]
theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment
personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness
school of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns
school of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential
school of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense.
an approach to, and subfield of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes, their adaptive value, and the purposes they continue to serve
theoretical perspective that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
greek philosopher that proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior; supported the empiricist view that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
french nativist scholar; proponent of dualism; argued that "threads" within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
Hermann von Helmholtz
German physiologist who demonstrated that the movement of impulses in the nerves and in the brain was not instantaneous, but instead took a small but finite about of time.
british biologist who introduced the ideas of natural selection and evolution; argued that specific behaviors evolved because they led to advantages in survival or reproduction
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
G. Stanley Hall
american psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States and founded the American Psychological Association
Mary Whiton Calkins
american psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality and dreams; first woman president of the APA
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Margaret Floy Washburn
american psychologist who studied animal behavior; first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology
humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth
an emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow i ndividuals, communities, and societies to flourish
the psychological or social meanings attatched to being biologically male or female. often used interchageably with one's biological makeup or sex
general beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical of each sex
feminist theories offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and the prescriptions for changing them
refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes
a common cultural herritage-including religion, language or ancestry- that is shared by a group of individuals
the tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another
research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather htan in the laboratory
expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed
research technique in wihch questionaries or interviews are administered to a selected group of people
research technique based on the naturally occuring relationship between two or more variables
a research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior
in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other dependent variables
in an experiment, the variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations made in the independent variable
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable
in a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental group
expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretations