Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Alexander Hamilton and the National Debt
1) Fix the national debt: pay all debts by borrowing money from states --> although it increased debts, it made the states dependent on Federal government
2) Taxes: revenues on foreign trade, excise tax on whiskey, Industrial Revolution
3) Bank of the United States (BUS): national currency, government regulated taxes and trade
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
John Jay's Treaty
John Jay was sent by Washington to talk to the British. He called for Britain to pay damages for American ships seized in 1793. In turn, Americans had to pay debts to British merchants from before the American Revolution
An agreement made in 1795 between the US and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
No entangling alliances, Stay out of their problems, need to grow stronger economically, militarily, and politically before we get involved,Helps pay off economy, allows for open trade
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
- appointed John Marshall to Supreme Court
Citizen Genet Affair
A French representative who attempted to contradict the Neutrality Proclamation by organizing armies to attack British and Spanish territories. Washington ejected him from the country when he became dangerous to his control over the people.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
- violated freedom of rights
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
- the "best" people
- intellectual arrogance
- strong central government
- support wealthy and private investments
- loose interpretation of the Constitution
- protective tariffs
- Nation Debt is a blessing (states stay dependent on federal government)
- strong Navy
- ruled by the masses (farmers etc.)
- extension of democracy
- weak central government to preserve state's rights
- strict interpretation of the Constitution
- National Debt is bad
- State Banks
- freedom of speech and press -> Bill of Rights
- minimal Navy