Psychology

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In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research artcipants in order to ensure that...

The participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.

Reuptake refers to the...

Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.

Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates

dual processing

While reading a novel Raoul isnt easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers loud arguments. This best illustrates...

selective attention

The exlanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable...

predictions

the biggest danger of relying on case study evidence is that it...

may be unrepresentative of what is gnereally true.

Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on tv are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because...

correlation does not prove causation

To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the _____ group.

control

to determine whether the strength of peoples self esteem is related to their incoe levels, researches would most likely make use of...

correlation research

forty year old lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably...

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.

If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfactoin are...

negatively correlated

University of Texas students were fitted with belt worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as...

naturalistic observation

Greg remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car. Gregs therapist suggested that the dream ight be a representation of the girlfriends efforts to avoid sexual itimacy. According to freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the _____ of gregs dream

latent content

REM reboud involves the...

tendancy for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

ike Cratpons stockbroker has infored him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When ike tells his wife, she angrily responds, "i could have told you that your investent plan would fail" Her coment best illustrates...

hindsight bias

Jose has just played a long, brusing football game but feels little fatigue or disconfort. His lack of pin is most likely caused by the release of...

endorphins

which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the reigious beliefs of amercans and their attitudes toward abortion?

the survey

To understand the unusal behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the clients current life situation and his physical, social cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

the case study

A biological psychologst would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between...

neurotransitters and depression

the cheical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called...

neurotransmitters

if warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high slf esteem, this would most clearly indicate that...

warmly supportive parenting and childrens self esteem are correlated.

mrs. Pearson cut judys hot dog into eight pieces and sylvias into six pieces. sylvia cried because she felt she wasnt getting as uch hot dog as judy. Piaget would say that sylvia doesnt understand the principle of....

conservation

five year olds who were surprised to disvover that a band aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friends false belief about the contents of the box. this best illustrates that the children had developed a...

theory of mind

according to piaget, scheas are...

peopls conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences

at age 12, sean is happy, self reliant, and has a positive self image. it is most likely that seans parents are...

authoritative

the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include...

brain abnormalities

environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by coparing...

identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart

Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. this suggests that piaget...

underestimated the cognitive capacties of infants

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, wheras shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. the two children most clearly dffer in...

temperament

olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking eaisly avalable objects. Olivia is clearly in piagets ____ stage

sensorimotor

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle aged male nurse took care of him. nageebs altered conception of a nurse illustrates the process of...

accommodation

accordig to paget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ____ stage.

preoperational

the mcdouglas use harsh dicipline on the children and deand unquestioning obedience. Pschologists are likely to characterize the mcdouglas as _____ parents

authoritarian

if research suggested that a pregnant mothers use of an articial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artifical sweetner would be considered a...

teratogen

according to piaget, children come to understand that the colume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the _____ stage.

concrete operational

four year old jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a chrstmas present. this best illustrates piagets concept of...

egocentrism

according to erkson, trust is to infancy as identity is to...

adolencence

nature is to nurture as _____ is to _____

temperament; responsive parenting

the first time that four year old sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was siply a large whistle. sarahs initial understanding of the flue best illustrates the process of...

assimilation

fourteen year old lisa was asked, "what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went bline?" she responded, "those who had previously been blind would become learders. "lisas answer indicates she is in the _____ stage of develpment

formal operational

the process of reviecing and representing stimulus engergies by the nervous system s called...

sensation

perception is the process by which...

sensory nput is organized and interpreted

durng a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that mr atall could hardly detect them. these sounds were below mr antalls...

absolute threshold

which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation?

a store plays a musical soundtrack in which a faint and imperceptible verbal warning against shoplifting is repeated frequently.

photographs of people were reated more positively oif the photos immediately followed a brefly flashed image of kittens. this best illustrates the impact of

priming

after listening to your high volume car stero for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. this illustrates

sensory adaptation

mrs shields a recent stroke victim, cannot consviously perceive the alrge book on the coffee table in front of her. yet when urged to identify the book she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. her responste best illustrates

blindsight

pleasant memories are most likely to be evoked by exposure to

fragrant odors

a gestalt is best described as a

organized whole

because carmalle, jorge, and gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. this best illustrates the organizational principle of

proxiity

because the two teams wore different colored uniforms, cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. this illistrates the principle of

similarity

the principle of connectedness would most likely lead you to perceive all the _____ as parts of a single unit

rungs i a ladder

the visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing _____ in infants

depth perception

after learning that her new college roomate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, erin incorrectly perceivd her roomates laughter as articial and phony. this illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. this is a description of visions

absolute threshold

while competing in the olympic trails, marathoner kristen obrien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. that she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race...

the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain

which of the following statements is consistent with the gestalt theory of perception?

the mind organizes sensations into mainingful perceptions

adults who are born blind but later have their vision resorted

trypcially fail to recognize failiar objects

jack blaims that he often has dreams that predict future events. he claims to have the power of

precognition

a person claiming to be able to read anothers mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of

telepathy

which of the following statements concerning ESP is true?

most research psychologists are skeptical of the claims of defenders of ESP

although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, Lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. this best illustrates the value of

perceptual adaptation

every saturday morning, arnold quickly washes the familys breakfast dishes so that hs father will allow hi to wash his car. in this instance, washing the car is a

positive reinforcer

after learning the combination for his new locker at school, milton is unable to remember the combination fr his ear old bicycle lock. ilton is experiencing the effects of

retroactive interference

after maya gave her friend the password to a protected web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. in this instance, the password was clearly stored in her _____ memory.

short term

mason, a stockbroer, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. masons running habt is maintained by a _____ reinforcer

negative

arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriends telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriends number. arnolds difficulty best illustrates

proactie interference

dan and joel, both 4 year olds, have been watching reruns of "superman" on television. joels mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. what best accounts for the boys behavior?

observational learning

"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of _____ memory.

short term

the use of physical punishment may

model aggression as a way of coping with problems

a real estate agent showed gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth watering meal. later, when gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with deligh. for gavin the lakeshore property was a

CS

chunking refers to

the orgonization of information into meaningful units

at a block party, cyndi is introdeced to eight new neighbors. moments later, she rememvers only the naes of the first three and last two neighbors. her experience illustrates

the serial position effect

after getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campire, julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. this best illustrates the adaptive value of

generalization

students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long term retention of the course amterial. this illustrates the calue of

the spacing effect

makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. the fact hat today she can again fly without destress indicates that her fear has undergone

extinctionn

judy i embarressed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friends name. judys poor memory most likely results from a failure in

retrieval

to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use

immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers

children oftern learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

operant conditioning

pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrial of their food illustrate

classical conditioning

if one chimpanzee watches a second chip solve a puzzle for a food reward the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. this illustrates

observationsl learning

a type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as

repression

a test that measureicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of

validity

when asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their _____ needs

belongingness

on the basis of maslows hierarchy of needs, one would be least likely to predict that a

teacher with high self esteem might seek a career change to use his or her abilities more fully

anger is the toxic core of

type A personality

the text defines stress as

the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and chalenges

melinda completed the computer programming aptitude test when she spplied for a position with beta electonics. six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. the fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of

reliability

to assess mental age, binet and simon measured childrens

reasoning skills

speamans g factor refers to

a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks

the pervasiveness of stress is best illustrated by the fact that the most significant category of life evene stressors involves

everyday annoyances

motivation is best understood as a state that

energizes and directs behavior

who is the best emxample of a type b personality?

wang lung, a relaxed easy goin dentist

beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following repsresents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by maslow?

physiological; sefety; belongingness and love; esteem; self fulfillment

bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporate lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. research suggest that bernards susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his

anger

a 12 year old who responded to the original stanford binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9 year old was said to have an IQ of

75

before publishing her test of musical aptitude, professor reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. this was most clearly necessary for test

standardization

the most basic or lowest level need in maslows hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

food and water

who is the best example of a type A personality?

philip, a competative hot tempered corporation president

in their classic nine year study, friedman and rosenman reported that, compared with type a men, type b men were

less susceptible to heart attacks

according to maslow, our need for ____ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ____.

adequate clothing; self esteem

to alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. jeremys behavior best illustrates

emotion focused coping

a person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the big five trait dimension of

conscientiousness

four year old timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. however, he started bed wetting again soon after his sister was born. timmys behavior best ilustrates

regression

two year old damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence fro their control. freud would have suggested that damien is going through the ____ stage of develpment

anal

a ferusal to believe direct and highly creatable evidence that your spouse is suffereing a terminal illness best illustrates

denial

an individuals characteristic patter of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her

personality

while professor gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily diffuclt test and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professors treatment of students as an example of

displacement

gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. freud would have suggested that gene is fixated at the ____ stage

latency

when she was 8 years old, inge was suxually abused by her uncle. at 14, inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that inge is using the defense mechanism of

repression

which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?

freuds psychoanalytic theory

after experiencing inescapable brutalities as a priosner in a nazi concentration camp, mr stenberg became spathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the orderal. mr stenbergs reaction most clearly illustrates

learned helplessness

carl rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as

unconditional positive regard

people who score high on the big five trait dimension known as _____ are also more likely to earn better high scool and university grades

conscientiousness

the social cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our

situations

the oedipus complex is the term used by freud to describe

boys feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother

abraham maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the ned for

self actualization

when 2 year old matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. freud would have suggested that matthew was unable to resist the demands of his

id

the perception that your fate is determined by luck reflecs

an external locus of control

according to freud, the unconscious is

the thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware

characteristic patters of behavior and conscious motives are called

traits

janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographi video. freud would have attributed these feelings to janines

superego

mr hunt believes that he is the president of the united states and that he will soon become the king of the universe. mr hunt is most clearly suffering from

delusions

in which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?

bipolar disorder

in a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea producing drug. yet, outside the therapists office, the client knows he or she can eat thsoe foods without fear of nausea. this awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of

aversive conditioning

empathic understanding of the patients subjective experiences is a major goal of a

client centered therapist

electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of

depression

the approach that has helped children with autism learn to function successfully in school involves

operant conditioning

a therpist who takes an eclectiv approach is one who

uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches

kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. kaylee appears to suffer from

a phobia

when murli told his therapist, i came to see what you could do for me, the therapist responded, it sounds like youre feeling you need some help. am i right? the therapists response illusrates the technique of

active listening

the billionaire aviator howard hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. his bahavior best illustrated the syjptoms of

obsessive compulsive disorder

exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a

dissociative disorder

dr genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical abnormalities. in her work as a therapist, dr genscher is most likely to make use of

drug therapies

jabar a 25 year old mechanic, thinks he is napoleon. he further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. jabar is most likely suffering from

schizophrenia

anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. he has swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. his behavior is evidence of

a personality disorder

instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, _____ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self fulfillment

humanistic

group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for

enabling people to discover that the others have problems similar to their own

several years after his wifes death, mr stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. to reduce mr stattlers depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wifes death. the therapists approach is most representative of

cognative therapy

while he was studying, matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. for several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. matthew was most likely suffering from

a panic attack

mr chois therapist wants to help him cecome aware of his conficting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. the therapists goal best reflects a primary aim of

psychoanalysis

those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with

heir own self importance

having observed paticipants in his simulated prison study, philip zimbardo offered an explination for the destrucive vehavior of U.S. military guards at iraqs abu ghraib prison. zimbardos explanation best exemplified

a situational attribution

which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?

social psychology

solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a groups judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

a store owner chargesblack customers more then hispanic customers for the very same merhandise. the owner is most clearly engaging in

discrimination

adjusting ones behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

conformity

in 1942 reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of jozefow,l poland. this incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures

the milgram obedience experiments were controersial becuase the

teachers were deceived and frequently subjected to stress

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