In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research artcipants in order to ensure that...
The participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.
Reuptake refers to the...
Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates
While reading a novel Raoul isnt easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers loud arguments. This best illustrates...
The exlanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable...
the biggest danger of relying on case study evidence is that it...
may be unrepresentative of what is gnereally true.
Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on tv are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because...
correlation does not prove causation
To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the _____ group.
to determine whether the strength of peoples self esteem is related to their incoe levels, researches would most likely make use of...
forty year old lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably...
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfactoin are...
University of Texas students were fitted with belt worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as...
Greg remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car. Gregs therapist suggested that the dream ight be a representation of the girlfriends efforts to avoid sexual itimacy. According to freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the _____ of gregs dream
REM reboud involves the...
tendancy for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
ike Cratpons stockbroker has infored him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When ike tells his wife, she angrily responds, "i could have told you that your investent plan would fail" Her coment best illustrates...
Jose has just played a long, brusing football game but feels little fatigue or disconfort. His lack of pin is most likely caused by the release of...
which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the reigious beliefs of amercans and their attitudes toward abortion?
To understand the unusal behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the clients current life situation and his physical, social cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?
the case study
A biological psychologst would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between...
neurotransitters and depression
the cheical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called...
if warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high slf esteem, this would most clearly indicate that...
warmly supportive parenting and childrens self esteem are correlated.
mrs. Pearson cut judys hot dog into eight pieces and sylvias into six pieces. sylvia cried because she felt she wasnt getting as uch hot dog as judy. Piaget would say that sylvia doesnt understand the principle of....
five year olds who were surprised to disvover that a band aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friends false belief about the contents of the box. this best illustrates that the children had developed a...
theory of mind
according to piaget, scheas are...
peopls conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences
at age 12, sean is happy, self reliant, and has a positive self image. it is most likely that seans parents are...
the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include...
environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by coparing...
identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart
Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. this suggests that piaget...
underestimated the cognitive capacties of infants
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, wheras shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. the two children most clearly dffer in...
olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking eaisly avalable objects. Olivia is clearly in piagets ____ stage
Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle aged male nurse took care of him. nageebs altered conception of a nurse illustrates the process of...
accordig to paget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ____ stage.
the mcdouglas use harsh dicipline on the children and deand unquestioning obedience. Pschologists are likely to characterize the mcdouglas as _____ parents
if research suggested that a pregnant mothers use of an articial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artifical sweetner would be considered a...
according to piaget, children come to understand that the colume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the _____ stage.
four year old jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a chrstmas present. this best illustrates piagets concept of...
according to erkson, trust is to infancy as identity is to...
nature is to nurture as _____ is to _____
temperament; responsive parenting
the first time that four year old sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was siply a large whistle. sarahs initial understanding of the flue best illustrates the process of...
fourteen year old lisa was asked, "what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went bline?" she responded, "those who had previously been blind would become learders. "lisas answer indicates she is in the _____ stage of develpment
the process of reviecing and representing stimulus engergies by the nervous system s called...
perception is the process by which...
sensory nput is organized and interpreted
durng a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that mr atall could hardly detect them. these sounds were below mr antalls...
which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation?
a store plays a musical soundtrack in which a faint and imperceptible verbal warning against shoplifting is repeated frequently.
photographs of people were reated more positively oif the photos immediately followed a brefly flashed image of kittens. this best illustrates the impact of
after listening to your high volume car stero for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. this illustrates
mrs shields a recent stroke victim, cannot consviously perceive the alrge book on the coffee table in front of her. yet when urged to identify the book she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. her responste best illustrates
pleasant memories are most likely to be evoked by exposure to
a gestalt is best described as a
because carmalle, jorge, and gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. this best illustrates the organizational principle of
because the two teams wore different colored uniforms, cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. this illistrates the principle of
the principle of connectedness would most likely lead you to perceive all the _____ as parts of a single unit
rungs i a ladder
the visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing _____ in infants
after learning that her new college roomate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, erin incorrectly perceivd her roomates laughter as articial and phony. this illustrates the impact of
given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. this is a description of visions
while competing in the olympic trails, marathoner kristen obrien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. that she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race...
the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain
which of the following statements is consistent with the gestalt theory of perception?
the mind organizes sensations into mainingful perceptions
adults who are born blind but later have their vision resorted
trypcially fail to recognize failiar objects
jack blaims that he often has dreams that predict future events. he claims to have the power of
a person claiming to be able to read anothers mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of
which of the following statements concerning ESP is true?
most research psychologists are skeptical of the claims of defenders of ESP
although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, Lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. this best illustrates the value of
every saturday morning, arnold quickly washes the familys breakfast dishes so that hs father will allow hi to wash his car. in this instance, washing the car is a
after learning the combination for his new locker at school, milton is unable to remember the combination fr his ear old bicycle lock. ilton is experiencing the effects of
after maya gave her friend the password to a protected web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. in this instance, the password was clearly stored in her _____ memory.
mason, a stockbroer, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. masons running habt is maintained by a _____ reinforcer
arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriends telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriends number. arnolds difficulty best illustrates
dan and joel, both 4 year olds, have been watching reruns of "superman" on television. joels mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. what best accounts for the boys behavior?
"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of _____ memory.
the use of physical punishment may
model aggression as a way of coping with problems
a real estate agent showed gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth watering meal. later, when gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with deligh. for gavin the lakeshore property was a
chunking refers to
the orgonization of information into meaningful units
at a block party, cyndi is introdeced to eight new neighbors. moments later, she rememvers only the naes of the first three and last two neighbors. her experience illustrates
the serial position effect
after getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campire, julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. this best illustrates the adaptive value of
students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long term retention of the course amterial. this illustrates the calue of
the spacing effect
makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. the fact hat today she can again fly without destress indicates that her fear has undergone
judy i embarressed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friends name. judys poor memory most likely results from a failure in
to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers
children oftern learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrial of their food illustrate
if one chimpanzee watches a second chip solve a puzzle for a food reward the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. this illustrates
a type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as
a test that measureicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of
when asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their _____ needs
on the basis of maslows hierarchy of needs, one would be least likely to predict that a
teacher with high self esteem might seek a career change to use his or her abilities more fully
anger is the toxic core of
type A personality
the text defines stress as
the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and chalenges
melinda completed the computer programming aptitude test when she spplied for a position with beta electonics. six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. the fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of
to assess mental age, binet and simon measured childrens
speamans g factor refers to
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks
the pervasiveness of stress is best illustrated by the fact that the most significant category of life evene stressors involves
motivation is best understood as a state that
energizes and directs behavior
who is the best emxample of a type b personality?
wang lung, a relaxed easy goin dentist
beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following repsresents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by maslow?
physiological; sefety; belongingness and love; esteem; self fulfillment
bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporate lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. research suggest that bernards susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his
a 12 year old who responded to the original stanford binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9 year old was said to have an IQ of
before publishing her test of musical aptitude, professor reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. this was most clearly necessary for test
the most basic or lowest level need in maslows hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
food and water
who is the best example of a type A personality?
philip, a competative hot tempered corporation president
in their classic nine year study, friedman and rosenman reported that, compared with type a men, type b men were
less susceptible to heart attacks
according to maslow, our need for ____ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ____.
adequate clothing; self esteem
to alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. jeremys behavior best illustrates
emotion focused coping
a person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the big five trait dimension of
four year old timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. however, he started bed wetting again soon after his sister was born. timmys behavior best ilustrates
two year old damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence fro their control. freud would have suggested that damien is going through the ____ stage of develpment
a ferusal to believe direct and highly creatable evidence that your spouse is suffereing a terminal illness best illustrates
an individuals characteristic patter of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
while professor gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily diffuclt test and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professors treatment of students as an example of
gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. freud would have suggested that gene is fixated at the ____ stage
when she was 8 years old, inge was suxually abused by her uncle. at 14, inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that inge is using the defense mechanism of
which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?
freuds psychoanalytic theory
after experiencing inescapable brutalities as a priosner in a nazi concentration camp, mr stenberg became spathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the orderal. mr stenbergs reaction most clearly illustrates
carl rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
unconditional positive regard
people who score high on the big five trait dimension known as _____ are also more likely to earn better high scool and university grades
the social cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
the oedipus complex is the term used by freud to describe
boys feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother
abraham maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the ned for
when 2 year old matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. freud would have suggested that matthew was unable to resist the demands of his
the perception that your fate is determined by luck reflecs
an external locus of control
according to freud, the unconscious is
the thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
characteristic patters of behavior and conscious motives are called
janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographi video. freud would have attributed these feelings to janines
mr hunt believes that he is the president of the united states and that he will soon become the king of the universe. mr hunt is most clearly suffering from
in which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
in a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea producing drug. yet, outside the therapists office, the client knows he or she can eat thsoe foods without fear of nausea. this awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of
empathic understanding of the patients subjective experiences is a major goal of a
client centered therapist
electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
the approach that has helped children with autism learn to function successfully in school involves
a therpist who takes an eclectiv approach is one who
uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. kaylee appears to suffer from
when murli told his therapist, i came to see what you could do for me, the therapist responded, it sounds like youre feeling you need some help. am i right? the therapists response illusrates the technique of
the billionaire aviator howard hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. his bahavior best illustrated the syjptoms of
obsessive compulsive disorder
exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a
dr genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical abnormalities. in her work as a therapist, dr genscher is most likely to make use of
jabar a 25 year old mechanic, thinks he is napoleon. he further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. jabar is most likely suffering from
anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. he has swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. his behavior is evidence of
a personality disorder
instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, _____ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self fulfillment
group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
enabling people to discover that the others have problems similar to their own
several years after his wifes death, mr stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. to reduce mr stattlers depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wifes death. the therapists approach is most representative of
while he was studying, matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. for several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. matthew was most likely suffering from
a panic attack
mr chois therapist wants to help him cecome aware of his conficting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. the therapists goal best reflects a primary aim of
those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with
heir own self importance
having observed paticipants in his simulated prison study, philip zimbardo offered an explination for the destrucive vehavior of U.S. military guards at iraqs abu ghraib prison. zimbardos explanation best exemplified
a situational attribution
which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a groups judgment of the lengths of lines
even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect
a store owner chargesblack customers more then hispanic customers for the very same merhandise. the owner is most clearly engaging in
adjusting ones behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
in 1942 reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of jozefow,l poland. this incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
the milgram obedience experiments were controersial becuase the
teachers were deceived and frequently subjected to stress
what determined whether college freshman who had ben randomly paired for a welcome week dance liked eacher other?
felippe, a 19 year old university freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. research suggests that he would be most likely to develp a close frienship with
toren, who is talkative and assertive
which of the following is most clearly cupported by research on social attraction?
birds of a feather flock together
overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people that often underlie prejedicial emotions are called
studies of implicit attitudes indicate that prejudice is often
philip zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoner or guards. this experiment best illustrated the impact of
role playing on attituds
freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. the tendancey to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth grade tacher to conclude that freire did poorly because
he is unmotivated to do well in school
when 68 year old mrs blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. one year later, she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, when an hour elapsed before someon efinally stopped to offer assistance. mrs blakes experience best illustrates
the bystander effect
acording to milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction
at a voncious level, Aaron doesnt think hes prejudiced. yet he automatically feels uncomfortaable in situations where he ahs to interact with people of different races from his own. aarons experience best illustrate sthe distinction between
explicit and implicit attitudes
alex thinks smoking is addictive but other players on his hockey team insist that its not. alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team
prejudice is best defined as
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
svetlana, a 20 year old undergraduate, is beautiful. research suggest that she is likely to _____ than less attractive women
be perceived as more socially skilled