## Chem Exam 3 Ch. 11

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BelletristicBeast Plus on April 21, 2012

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Gases and Their Properties

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# Chem Exam 3 Ch. 11

 Pressureforce exerted on an object divided by the area over which it is exerted; measured by a barometer in atm
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#### Definitions

Pressure force exerted on an object divided by the area over which it is exerted; measured by a barometer in atm
Millimeters of Mercury (mm Hg) 760 mm Hg = 1 atm; at sea level
Boyle's Law volume of a fixed amount of gas at a given temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas
Boyle's equation P1V1=P2V2 at constant n and T
Charles's Law the volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure decreases with decreasing temperature
Charles's equation V1/T1=V2T2 at constant n and P
Temperature (T) must always be expressed in Kelvins (°C+ 273.15=K)
General Gas Law also known as Combined Gas law; combination of Boyle's and Charles's Law
General Gas Law Equation P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
when when T2 is greater than T1, P2 will be greater than P1
Avogadro's Hypothesis equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure have equal numbers of particles
Avogadro's equation Volume (V) = Constant (K) x Moles (n)
Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT
R; Gas Constant (Ideal Gas Law) 0.08206PV/nT; universal constant
n PV/RT
V nRT/P
P nRt/V
T PV/nR
Density (d) PM/RT
M=molar mass
M dRT/P
Partial Pressure pressure of each gas in a mixture
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures the pressure of a mixture of ideal gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the different gases in the mixture
Dalton's equation Ptotal=P1+P2+P3...
Ptotal (nA+nB+nC)(RT)/V = (ntotal)(RT)/V
Mole Fraction (X) the number of moles of a particular substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present
(Pa) Pressure of a Gas (Xa)(Ptotal)
the ________________ in a mixture of gases is the product of its mole fraction and the total pressure of the mixture
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases all gases, regardless of their molecular mass, have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature (does not mean they have the same rms speed); average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to gas temperature
Kinetic Molecular Theory Equation √U^2^ = √3RT/M
R (Kinetic Molecular Theory Rquation) 8.314J/molK
M molar mass= kg/mol
√U^2^ root mean square (rms)
Temperature kinetic energy of molecule increases; collision with the wall increases; therefore __________ of gas increases
Pressure increasing the number of molecules of a gas at a fixed temperature and volume does not change average collision force but does increase number of collisions occurring per second; therefore _________ increases
Volume ________ increases when pressure remains constant and number of molecules of gas or temperature increases
n __________ is constant when volume decreases; number of collisions with the container walls per second must increase and pressure increases
Gas Pressure force of collision/area
Diffusion mixing of molecules of two or more gases due to their random molecular motions
Effusion the movement of gas through a tiny opening in a container into another container where the pressure is very low; lighter molecules with average speeds strike the barrier more often and pass more often through it than heavier, slower molecules at the same temperature
Rate of Effusion (of a Gas) the amount of gas moving from one place to another in a given amount of time; inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
Graham's Law rate of effusion depends on the speed of the molecules
Graham's equation rate of effusion of gas 1/rate of effusion of gas 2 = √molar mass of gas 2/molar mass of gas 1
Real Gases As attractive forces between molecules increase, deviations from ideal behavior become more apparent at relatively low temperatures; The volume occupied by the molecules can cause an increase in pressure compared to the ideal gas.
Ideal Gases There are no attractive forces between molecules; Replacing one gas by another under the same conditions, has no effect on pressure
Van der Waals equation (P+a[n/V]^2^)(V-bn)=nRT; developed to correct for the errors arising from nonideality

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