Who is the typical customer of an adolescent who deals a small amount of drugs?
Friends, relatives, aquantainces
What is a gateway drug?
Substance that leads to use of more serious drugs- alcohol is biggest gateway drug
What is the power control theory?
This theory holds that gender differences in the delinquency rate are a function of class differences and economic conditions that influence the structure of family life.
What is the masculinity hypothesis?
The view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men
How does the female crime rate compare to the male crime rate in juveniles?
Males are significantly more delinquent than females, but female delinquency is rising at a faster pace. Males account for 76% of total number of arrests
What is the Chivalry Hypothesis?
Also known as paternalism hypothesis- The view that low female crime and delinquency rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders
Which program is targeted at youths who are at both high risks for delinquency and adjudicated offenders?
What are the comprehensive communitry based delinquency prevention programs?
Typically implemented in neighborhoods with high delinquency and crime rates- Usually involve an equally diverse group of community and government agencies that are concerned with the problem of juvenile delinquency
What is Primary Prevention?
focuses on improving the general well-being of individuals through such measures as access to health care services and general prevention education
What is Secondary Prevention?
focuses on intervening with children and young people who are potentially at risk for becoming offenders, as well as the provision of neighborhood programs
What is Tertiary Prevention?
- focuses on intervening with adjudicated juvenile offenders through such measures as substance abuse treatment and imprisonment. The goal is to reduce repeat offending or recidivism
What type of programs are the YMCA and the boys and girls club?
Non-Justice Delinquency Prevention Program
What is delinquency prevention?
This involves any non-justice program or policy designed to prevent the occurrence of a future delinquent act.
What type of strategy is: informing children about the dangers of drug use and teaching children to resist peer pressure?
Education Community Based
What is D.A.R.E and what does it do?
Drug Abuse Resistance Education- elementary school course designed to give students the skills for resisting peer pressure to experiment with drugs and alcohol. It employs uniformed police officers to deliver an anti-drug message.
In re Gault
- it remains the single most significant constitutional case in the area of juvenile justice. It instilled in juvenile proceedings the development of due process standards at the pretrial, trial, and post-trial stages
Troxel vs. Granville
- Ruled that the due process clause of the constitution protects against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests including parents' right to make decisions concerning the child.
What is child abuse?
Any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child, including neglecting to give proper care and attention, for while no reasonable explanation can be found
What is child neglect?
Passive abuse by a parent or guardian, depriving of food, shelter, health care, or love
What project is dedicated to addressing the crisis of child abuse, neglect, abandonment, and other issues?
The Parenting Project
Which initiative aims to identify and replicate effective youth violence prevention programs?
Kent vs. US
Determined that a child has due process rights, such as having an attorney present at waiver hearings
What were the child savers?
They were nineteenth century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system
What are the different views of gang membership?
1. Anthropological- Gangs appeal to kids' tribal instincts
Gang membership views
2. Sociocultural- Gangs form because of destructive sociocultural forces in disorganized inner-city areas
Gang membership views
3. Anomie/ Alienation- Alienates kids join gangs; anomic, social, and economic conditions encourage gang activity
Gang membership views
4. Psychological- Kids with personality problems form gangs and become leaders
Gang membership views
5. Rational Choice- Kids join gangs for protection, fun, survival, and the enhance their lifestyle
Characteristics of Asian gangs
Victimize members of their own ethnic group- more organized, recognizable leaders, far more secretive than black and Hispanic gangs, and less territorial
What are the 5 independent view points on the impact of peer relations?
1. Alienation- Although they appear to have close friends, delinquents actually lack the social skills to make their peer relations rewarding or fulfilling.
2. Peer Influence- Delinquent friends cause law-abiding youth to get in trouble- Kids who fall in with a bad crowd are at risk for delinquency.
3. Peer Selection- Antisocial youths join up with like-minded friends; deviant peers sustain and amplify deviant careers.
4. Conspirators- Troubled kids choose delinquent peers out of necessity rather than desire- Delinquent kids come from distressed home, maintain emotional problems, and do poorly in school. These social factors, not peer influence, are the cause of delinquency.
5. Outsiders- display emotional or behavioral problems that cause other kids to label them- This leads to feelings of isolation and loneliness.
What are the 4 categories of family dysfunction that promote delinquent behavior?
1. Families disrupted by spousal conflict or breakup
2. Families involved in interpersonal conflict
3. Ineffective parents who lack proper parenting skills
4. Families that contain deviant parents who may transmit their behavior to their children
What is sibling deviance?
If one sibling is delinquent, there is a significant likelihood that his brother or sister will engage in delinquent behavior
What is a status offender?
Juvenile committing actions that would not be considered illegal if perpetrator was an adult
What do judges do with repeat juvenile offenders who are deemed as untreatable?
Transfer or waive to the adult court
Under what circumstances can a state detain a juvenile in a secure detention facility?
For the protection of themselves and others- if the police believe they are inclined to run away while awaiting trial, or if they are likely to commit an offense dangerous to the parent.
What factors are taken into consideration at a disposition hearing?
The offense, the youth's prior record, and his or her family background
What is in loco parentis?
Police have broader latitude to control the behavior of youth via the doctrine of In loco parentis- "in place of the parent"
What is the premise of the community policing model?
The police can carry out their duties more effectively by gaining the trust and assistance of concerned citizens
What are the 4 benefits that the teen court provides?
1. Accountability- may help to ensure that young offenders are held accountable for their illegal behavior, even when their offenses are relatively minor.
2. Timeliness- effective teen court can move young offenders from arrest to sanctions within a matter of days rather than the months that may pass with traditional juvenile courts.
3. Cost Savings- usually depend heavily on youth and adult volunteers.
4. Community Cohesion- may affect the entire community by increasing public appreciation of the legal system.
People v. Lara
court case was the question of a juveniles waiver determined by the totality of the circumstances doctrine
Fare vs. Michael C.
court case ruled that a child asking to speak with his probation officer was not the equivalent of asking for an attorney
What is discretion
Use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system, such as deciding whether to make an arrest or when to accept a plea bargain
What does G.R.E.A.T stand for? What does it do?
Gang Resistance and Education Training- school and police partnership to reduce delinquency
What situational factors influence police in arresting juveniles?
Attitude of the complaint, Type and seriousness of offense, Race, sex, age of the offender, Attitude of offender, Offender's prior contacts with the police, Perceived willingness of the parents to assist in solving the problem, Setting or location in which the incident occurs, Whether offender denies the actions or insists on a court hearing, The likelihood that a child can be served by an agency in the community
What is a guardian ad litem
Court appointed attorney who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare.
How can a juvenile be provided with legal counsel?
Public Defender Program- funded by state government to provide counsel to children at public expense
in re Winship court case
Proof required in juvenile delinquency adjudication is "beyond a reasonable doubt."
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
Held that trial by jury in a juvenile court's adjudicative stage is not a constitutional requirement
Breed vs. Jones
US Supreme Court ruling prevented a juvenile from being tried in 2 courts, adult and juvenile
What does petition mean
Formal complaint that initiates judicial action against a juvenile charged with delinquency or a status offense
Why does the juvenile court include a prosecutor
Responsible for bringing the case against the juvenile- has power to either initiate or discontinue delinquency or status offense allegations
What gives the juvenile the opportunity to have a case brought in front of a reviewing court after is has been heard in the juvenile or family court?
What is the name of correctional centers designed especially for juveniles?
Juvenile Correctional Facilities
Pena Vs. New York State Division for Youth
court case was it determined that the use of tranquilizing drugs violates cruel and unusual punishment for juveniles
What is reentry?
The process and experience of returning to society upon release from a custody facility postadjudication
What are rural programs
Specific recreational and work opportunities provided for juveniles in a rural setting such as a forestry camp, farm, or ranch