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What is the difference between an organism's habitat and its ecological niche?

a. Organism's habitat (where a species live) can be described as all of the biotic and abiotic factors in the area where an organism lives.
b. Ecological niche (how species live) is composed of all of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce. Niche includes food, abiotic conditions, and behavior.

Which ecological factors are a part of a lion's niche?

Food, hunting behavior, other lions, wildebeest, zebra, temperature.

Which ecological factors are a part of a lion's habitat?

Trees, watering hole, sand, and grass.

What is competitive exclusion?

When two species are competing for the same resource, one species will be better suited to the niche, and the other species will be pushed into another niche or become extinct.

What are the three possible outcomes of competitive exclusion?

The outcomes can be organisms adapted to the niche and pushed out its smaller competitor. Niche partitioning where two species can have naturally divided different resources based on competitive advantages. Or evolutionary response where two species could have experienced divergent evolution.

What are ecological equivalents?

Species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions.

Why ecological equivalents do not share the same niche?

Species that uses similar niches in different habitats or locations are called ecological equivalents. The evolution of life has resulted in general types of habitats and certain successful ways of exploiting the resources in those habitats.

Explain how word habitat origin relates to the definition of a habitat.

Where an organisms lives such as environment, including the grass, the trees, and watering holes.

In competitive exclusion, who is competing and who gets excluded?

The species that are more suited to the niche will be the competing one. The excluded one is species that will be pushed into another niche or become extinct.

What does equivalent mean in math? How does that meaning relate to ecological equivalent?

Equivalent mean in math mean numbers that are equal. Ecological equivalent are species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions.

What is an example of interspecific competition?

Interspecies competition defined as two different species compete for a limited resources. A hyena chases off a vulture to feast on an antelope carcass, different species of shrubs and grasses on the forest floor compete for sunlight.

What is an example of intraspecific competition?

Intraspecies competition defined as individuals of a particular species struggle against one another for limited resources. Two squirrels races up a tree to reach a hidden pile of nuts, brown bears hunting for fish on a river's edge fight over space and male big horn sheep butt heads violently in competition for mates.

How each mutualism organism is impacted using the term "benefits, harmed, or no impact"?

A is benefited, B benefied.

How each commensalism organism is impacted using the term "benefits, harmed, or no impact"?

A is not affected, B is benefited.

How each parasitism organism is impacted using the term "benefits, harmed, or no impact"?

A is harmed, B is benefited.

How is parasitism similar to predation?

One organisms benefits while the other is harmed.

How is parasitism different from predation?

Benefits by keeping its host alive for days or years.

What is the difference between endoparasites and ecotoparasites?

Endoparasites live in the tissue and organs of a host where, safely hidden, they feed on the nutrients ingested by their host.
Ectoparasite makes its home on the exterior of an organism, attaching itself to the outside of the host and usually feeding on its fluid. Many types of ectoparasites are also known to carry a wide variety of disease that can affect their host.

The term symbiosis comes from Greek term which means "living together." How does this word origin help to explain the definition of symbiosis?

Close ecological relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live in direct contact with one another.

Use your knowledge of the word "mutual" to write a definition for mutualism.

Interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another.

What is the formula for calculating population density?

# of individuals / area (units^2) =population density

What might cause the population density of a population of deer to increase?

Number of the deer decrease.

List two reasons why a population might live in a clumped dispersion and two reasons why a population might live in a uniform dispersion.

Clumped dispersion - avoiding predators and gain protection or access food resources.
Unifrom dispersion - protection,

What are the three type of population dispersion?

Clumped dispersion, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion.

What is meant by the term reproductive strategy?

To produce a lot of offspring

What accounts for differences in reproductive strategies?

How offspring survival from birth to death

Which is type I survivorship?

Type I represents a life history that is common among large mammals.
Lion, giraffe, and human

Which is type II survivorship?

Type II represents organisms such as birds, small mammals, and some reptiles show a survivorship rate that is roughly equal at all ages of an organism's life.
Bird, reptile, and small mammals.

Which is type III survivorship?

Type III represents high birth rate and also a very high infant mortality rate. For examples, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and plants.
Invertebrate and fish.

What is the difference between population density and population dispersion?

Population density is a measurement of the number of individuals living in a defined space.
Population dispersion is the way in which individuals of a population are spread in an area or a volume.

When resources are abundant in a particular area, individuals may move into the population of this area. This movement of individuals into a population from a different population is called?

immigration

A very cold winter has left many deer in a population hungry and sick. By the end of the winter, this population will likely decrease because of?

death

A deer population experience growth when the rate of reproduction increases. This change in population size is due to?

birth

As human move into their territory, many members of a deer population move away and join other herds. This movement of individuals out of a population into a new population is called?

emigration

How does the availability of resources affect population growth?

Population growth is a function of the environment. The rate of growth for a population is directly determined by the amount of resources available. A population may grow very rapidly, or it may take a bit of time to grow.

What are the two different types of population growth curves?

Exponential growth and logistic growth.

What types of population growth curve shows a carrying capacity?

Populations will rise and fall as a result of natural changes in the supply of resources.

What type of population growth is at risk for a population crash?

Environment and food.

What are the three examples of density-dependent limiting factors?

Competition, predation and parasitism and disease.

What are the three examples of density-independent limiting factors?

Unusual weather and human activities.

Why are emigrate opposites immigration?

Emigrate movement out of a population and into another population.
Immigration movement into a population from another population.

Why density-dependent limiting factor opposites of density-independent limiting factor?

Density-dependent is limiting factors that are affected by the number of individuals in a given area.
Density-independent are the aspects of the environment that limit a population growth regardless of the density of the population.

Why exponential growth opposites of logistic growth?

Exponential growth occurs when a population size increase dramatically over a period of time.
Logistic growth is a population begins with a period of slow growth followed by a brief period of exponential growth before leveling off at a stable size.

What is ecological succession?

Sequences of biotic changes that regenerate a damaged community or create a community in a previously uninhabited area.

What are the four main steps of primary succession? (include the amount of time it takes for each stages of this process).

Primary succession is the establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited.
0-15 years: moss, lichen, grasses
15-80 years: shrubs, cottonwoods, alder thicket.
80-115 years: transition to forest, alder, spruce.
115 - 200 years: hemlock-spruce forest.

What are the four main steps of secondary succession? (include the amount of time it takes for each stages of this process)

Reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact.
0-2 years: horse-weed, crabgrass, asters.
2-18 years: grass, shrubs, pin seeding.
18-70 years: pine forest and young hardwood seedling.
70 -100 years: oak-hickory forest.

What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?

Primary succession is the establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited.
Secondary succession is reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact.

Define pioneer species.

First organisms that live in a previously uninhabited area.

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