Edward Wilmot Blyden
A black, Christian man, born in the West Indies, who applied to seminary in the United States but was rejected because of his race. Because of this he 3traveled to Liberia to finish his education. He was the first English speaking black author to promote Islam as a more natural tradition for blacks versus Christianity.
a movement that seeks to unify African people, or people of African descent. This was also a concept that was touted by Edward Blyden as he was one of the first to push for black nationalism and pan africanism.
Moorish Science Temple
a religious organization, specifically a sect of Islam, founded in the early 1900's by Timothy Drew. A primary belief of the sect is that black people are of Moorish ancestry, specifically of Moroccan descent. In a similar manner to Edward Blyden, also believed that Islam was a more beneficial and natural religion for blacks.
the founder of the Nation of Islam. He established the first Nation Mosque in Detroit, Michigan in the year 1930. He mysteriously disappeared. He was succeeded by Elijah Muhammad. Not much is known about Fard, but Elijah Muhammad announced him to be a prophet of Islam.
Leader of the Nation of Islam after WD Fard "disappeared". He claimed himself as a redeemer of Islam or a "mahdi". He taught of the original people's undoing by the mad scientist Yacoub, and that the tribe of Shabazz were the original group of people to live in Mecca, that they overcame the evil scientist Yacoub, and they banished white people to Europe. He went on to become the mentor of Malcolm X and died in 1975 from an illness. He was succeeded in leadership by his son Warith Deen Mohammed.
Hazrat Inayat Khan
the founder of the Western Sufi Order (London). His Sufi order eventually dissolved into a new organization called the International Sufi Movement and he became a profound teacher of universal Sufism. It preached divine unity (or Tawhid - the oneness of God), and focused on themes of love and harmony.
Grew up a "Christian" but because of unfortunate events in his life shunned religion. While in prison, he converted to Islam, and became a member of the Nation of Islam upon his release. He rose to infamy as one of the Nation's most prolific members and through his recruitment efforts grows the Nation to about ten times its size. After going on his hajj and becoming disenchanted with the Nation of Islam, Malcolm becomes a more traditional Sunni Muslim and starts a Sunni Muslim mosque.
The Committee for Union and Progress (aka the Young Turks, not to be confused with the Young Ottomans) were a Turkish, nationalist, reform organization in the early 1900s. Their leaders led a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II, and ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until the beginning of World War I.
a term that refers to the absence of religious authorities in government, as well as an absence of government in religious affairs. Here it refers to the disestablishment of traditional religious authorities such as Sultans and Caliphs, the Grand Vizier (greatest minister of a Sultan and headed only by the Sultan himself), and Shayk al-Islam (a title of superior authority in issues of islam; given to scholars and of the Qur'an who gained deep knowledge of Islam and its principles).
a tafsir written by Said Nursi in Turkey between 1910 - 1950's (a tafsir is an Islamic exegesis [an exegesis is an interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text]). The tafsir deals with doctrines and principles of Islam, its primary purpose being the revitalization of the faith of believers, along with moral renewal, in the face of things such as atheism and naturalism.
movement of Black Americans out of the southern US and the North and Western US. The WWI labor shortages prompted blacks to move to Northern cities, with two major migrations occurring during WWI and succeeding WWII. In total about 2 million southern blacks moved north including Elijah Muhammad, who moved to Detroit and would go on to lead the Nation of Islam.
a Sufi mystic from the island of Sri Lanka, who came to the US in 1971 and established the Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship in Philadelphia.
Usman Dan Fodio
founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. He harbored ideas of reform and under repression by authorities, took his followers into exile. This prompted a political and social revolution that spread throughout Nigeria and Cameroon. The uprising inspired a number of later West African jihads
Naqshabandi Sufi Order in Turkey
Trade their origin back to Abu Bakr, reveled against Ataturk in many times. Had a tradition of "Seclusion in the mist of society" in other words being able to live a pious live while been involved in society. Practiced from of silence and internal dhikr, this meant that they were not tied down to one location to chant in group. They led the uprising against Ataturk which led to the banning of all Sufi orders, after that they silently took over local mosques. Today they actively encourage their members to get active in both economic and politics; they encourage the use of modern, technology, and economic wealth. Penetrated lower and higher ranks of government, they are willing to keep their instructions to themselves, evolved into a modern city sufis, and gained them a lot of power. This demonstrated that Ataturk's reforms were successful in modernizing Islam.
Caliphate in West Africa. Established by Shayh uthman b. fundi in 1808 after accusing his government of being corrupt and pagan He also declared jihad on them, which at the same time accentuated his power. It instituted Islamic reform, Fundi sought to impose a more strict form of Shari'a, he wanted to purify Islam from African practices. Imposed reforms in dress c3ode, food prohibitions, insisted in the leading role of the ulama.
Mohammad Reza Shah
Son of Reza Shah, second shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, placed there by the British and Americans. Appeared to be weak, indecisive, depended heavily of the SAVAK and on foreign powers. Became distrustful mossadeq's coup. Began to accentuate the idea of a Persian nation, there was lavish celebration that remarked the gap between the poor and the rich. Instituted the "white revolution" which was a mixture of different social and economic reforms to solve Iranian problems, it actually ended up benefiting wealthy Iranians, increasing the gap. Abolished all political parties other than his. Factors that contributed to the revolution
Akhbari stance: (losers of the debate) 'ulama should rely on legal materials that have been transmitted to them, no role for independent reasoning. Both the Muslims and ulama should practice Taqlid (follow precedent ruling)
Usuli Stance: Ulama should provide answers to legal questions using legal reasoning (Ijtihad). Also argued that untrained Muslims should practice taqlid of a qualified mujabids, based on the sources but responsive to the needs of the community. Gives rise to the position of Marja' al-taqlid (ayatollah).
Took place in Iran, after Nasir al-din Pasha sold a tobacco concession, right sold for cash, to a British company, angered merchants and farmers. The ayatollah Shirazi wrote fatwa declaring it haram (illegal) to use tobacco; the boycott was one of the first times the Iranian religious elite succeeded in forcing the government to retreat from a policy in unity with merchants, and intellectuals. Forced the shah to back down in the concession.
"Source of emulation", highly revered scholar. Had to complete a strict set of studies in a Shiite school, had to demonstrate their ability in the field of law by publishing a work. All 12ers Shiites decide which ayatollah they want to follow and they are bound by the decisions during the lifetime of the ayatollah, they have to follow a living man, they accept the Khums in name of the hidden imam. Force that led the revolution in Iran.
The "ideologue" of Iranian revolution, supplied a lot of the ideas that were very important to the revolution. Advocated a modernist and revolutionary form of Islam; died before the actual revolution. Re- writes about one of the companions of the prophet and described him as a revolutionary, and an Islamic socialist. Preached about equality, fraternity, justice and liberation; all Marxist ideas. He lectured on the activist stand towards religion using Marxist terminology and concepts; claimed Islam was a revolutionary religion. His lectures published in a book of Islam-ology in which he also describes Islam as modern, democratic, showed Marx concept as originally Islamic. Argued that Husain was a revolutionary activist and that people should aspire to be like him, even martyrs for the cause of justice.
literally means "consultation" in Arabic. A shura is often a group of men that leaders or a community will go to for advice or consulting. Most contemporary mosques elect a council to represent the community and communicate with the imam.