principles that define behavior as right, good, and proper
Principles provide a framework for what?
evaluating and deciding among competing options
What is the difference between ethics and values?
Ethics are how a moral person should behave. Values are inner factors and judgements that determine how a person actually behaves.
What are ethical principles?
they are rules of conduct that derive from ethical values.
What are the three models of ethical decision making?
1. virtue model
2. duty model
3. consequentialist model
What is the virtue model based upon?
the golden rule
What is the difficulty with the virtue model?
how do we decide whose concern is more important?
What is the duty model based upon?
Ethical decision are made based on established rules. No exception, no excuses.
What is the difficulty with the duty model?
not possible to have a rule for every single situation that can arise that requires an ethical decision.
What is the consequentialist model based upon?
Decision are made based upon the outcome. The needs of the many outweigh the few.
What is the problem with the consequentialist model?
we can not always predict the outcome of our decisions
Considers the moral issues in the fields of human and animal health and research.
Why was the Nuremberg Code developed?
The Nazi regime exploited human beings by forcing them to participate in research without consent.
What does the Nuremberg Code involve?
1. Informed consent is essential
2. Research should be based on prior animal work
3. Physical and mental suffering must be avoided
4. The risks should be justified by the anticipated benefits
What is the cornerstone statement of ethical principles for treatment of research subjects?
What are the 3 basic ethical principles of the belmont report?
1. Respect for persons
What are the 5 basic principles of informed consent?
The acceptability of using animals in research depends on two expectations: what are they?
1. Research findings will be meaningful and substantial
2. The suffering of animals will be minimal
What is therapeutic cloning?
cloning individual human cells. (involves stem cells to make specialized tissues)
harvesting organs from animals for organ transplantation into humans.
A ghostwriter is paid to write a paper under someone else's name, or allow his/her name to appear as author without making significant contribution.
What is genetic testing?
the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, protein, and certain metabolites, in order to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes.
What is the central dogma in biology as related to genes and phenotypes?
one gene represents one phenotype
Total number of genes is now estimated at ________. This number is ___higher/lower___ than what was previously thought.
Scientists have identified almost 1.4 million SNP locations. How does this affect genetic testing?
It revolutionizes the processes of finding chromosomal locations for disease-associated sequences.
Explain the four steps of how gene mutations occur.
1. DNA is damaged by radicals formed
2. Repair of DNA damage is insufficient
3. DNA synthesis bypassing the lesion substitutes the physiological replication
4. Errors are produced.