chemical that has been added directly to the air by natural events or human activities and occurs in a harmful concentration; emitted in a harmful form
harmful chemical found in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with normal air components or other air pollutants; react to form harmful compounds
physical properties of the troposphere of an area based on analysis of its weather records over a long period
complex mixture of air pollutants produced in the lower atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons & nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight
layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of less dense, warm air
thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere
Layers of the atmosphere in order.
Abrupt changes in temperature
How are the layers defined?
Most of the atmosphere's mass is in the ... layer.
78% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 1% argon
What is air made up of? (%)
In which of the layers does weather & climate occur?
Most human inputs of outdoor air pollution come from...
carbon/nitrogen/sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, suspended particulate matter, radioactive substances
What are the major air pollutants?
Trees, over 100 primary/secondary pollutants
Examples of VOCs.
volatile organic compounds
What is a VOC?
what makes gray air smog gray?
Control emissions from power plants & industry, increase efficiency, reduce emissions from cars
What are some natural processes that reduce outdoor air pollution?
Is acid deposition a local or regional problem?
Kills plants/fish; destruction of buildings
What are the effects of acid deposition?
.... is a result of uranium decay.
Regulate greenhouse gases, ships, 2 stroke engines/enforce
What could we do to strengthen air pollution laws?
Over the last 900,000 yrs. what has happened to Earth's average surface temp.?
(Greenhouse gases) Livestock, burning fossil furls, deforestation, use of inorganic fertilizers
What human activities raise methane emissions?
Ocean CO2 & heat storage
What could happen if sea levels rise as predicted?
Conserve energy, use renewable energy, increase gov. subsidies fro clean plants, help developing countries use clean technology, cap & trade, slow down CO2 production
How could we reduce the effects of climate change?
Asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer
How could ozone depletion affect human health?
Are humans increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere?
Reaction of hydrocarbons & nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight
How does photochemical smog form?
Clean Air Act
What US law established air pollution standards?
In what layer of the atmosphere is the ozone "hole" forming?
Is climate change a short- or long-term issue?
Smoke, carpet, furniture
What are some examples of indoor air pollutants?