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Final Exam Spring 2012

The idea that rules, efficiency and practical results should dominate human affairs.

Rationality

The conclusion that a changed way of thinking among Protestants produced capitalism.

Max Weber and his theory on religion and its relationship to economic development

An economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production.

Capitalism

A formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor.

Bureaucracy

A secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives. The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide their operations.

Formal Organizations

The process by which ordinary aspects of life are rationalized and efficiency comes to rule them, including food preparation.

McDonaldization

When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.

Goal Displacement

An organization replacing old goals with new ones, also known as goal replacement.

Goal displacement

A larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal and impersonal group based on some interest or activities.

Secondary group

People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant.

Group

A small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face to face association and corporation.

Primary group

The splitting of a group's or a society's tasks into specialties.

Division of labor

The violation of norms, rules and expectations.

Deviance

Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

The cultural relativity of deviance.

The idea that two control systems work against our tendencies to deviate. Inner controls and outer controls.

Control Theory

The strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal, but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal.

Strain Theory

page 216

Outlook on work Causes of growth in number of people in prison since 1970.

What are the causes of slavery?

Debt, crime and war.

Based on religion, not race. Status is determined by birth and is lifelong.

India's Caste System

A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige.

Social Stratification

In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________.

Gender

The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

Social stratification

What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?

Debt, crime and war

What is the basis of India's caste system?

Religion

The sociologist who believed that social class is made up of three components - property, power, and prestige - was ________.

Max Weber

The stratification system of medieval Europe, consisting of three groups or estates, the nobility, clergy, and commoners.

Estate System

Concludes that social class depends on a single factor: people's relationship to the means of production.

Karl Marx's theory of social class.

the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth.

Means of production

Weber's definition of social class?

Social class is made up of three components, power, property, and prestige.

Durkheim's term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior.

Anomie

Ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others.

Status inconsistency

The position that someone occupies social group.

Status

Refers to the situation that most poor families in the U.S. are headed by women.

Feminization of poverty

The mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work.

Glass ceiling

A group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups.

Race

Having distinctive cultural characteristics.

Ethnicity

As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?

One race is superior to another and pure races exist.

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

Ethnicity

Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.

Prejudice and discrimination.

An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way.

Prejudice

An act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group.

Discrimination

An individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's trouble.

Scapegoat

John recently received his semester grades and found that he had failed two courses. He says the reason he failed the two courses is that they were taught by female professors. John believes that women are really not smart enough to teach at the college level. In this example, the female professors are ________.

Scapegoats and being blamed for John's grades.

What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?

Minority group

What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?

Feminism

What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?

Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.

Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age is called ________.

Ageism

The relative value placed on men and women's ages.

Gender Age

Sociologically, what is a family?

Two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage or adoption.

In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ________.

Endogamy

Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?

The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.

The tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry one another.

Homogamy

A formal system of teaching knowledge, values, and skills.

Education

The unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms.

Hidden curriculum

The sociological principle that schools correspond to the social structure of their society.

Correspondence principle

Durkheim's three elements of religion?

Beliefs, practices, and a moral community.

Durkheim's term for things set apart or forbidden that inspire fear, awe, reverence, or deep respect.

Sacred

Durkheim's term for common elements of everyday life.

Profane

Functionalists perspective on religion?

Stress that religion is universal because it meets universal human needs.

Symbolic Interventionist perspective on religion?

Religious symbols, rituals, and beliefs.

Conflict perspective on religion?

Highly critical of religion, stresses that religion meets the status quo.

Positions that are earned, accomplished or involved at least some effort or activity on the individual's part.

Achieved status

A position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life.

Ascribed status

Males' and females' unequal access to property, power, and prestige.

Gender stratification

Conflicts that someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role.

Role conflict

The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status.

Role

The process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity.

Gate keeping

What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?

Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.

Which of the following communities would be most aligned with the rational approach to life?

A nineteenth-century steel mill town in Pennsylvania.

Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. Frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more likely to be industrialized?

The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results will be industrialized.

Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of last year's Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to ________.

Resist alienation.

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.

The Iron Law of Oligarchy.

Organizing a workplace in such a way that it develops rather than impedes human potential is known as ________.

Humanizing a work setting.

The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

Symbolic interactionism.

Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

Stigma.

A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.

Social order.

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

Inner control.

In some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and the upper class marry to preserve their power and wealth within their families. This is a practice known as ________.

Endogamy.

Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.

False.

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