Neuro Block 4 - L09 Language & Cognition

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have articulation problems, not word selection problems.

Broca aphasia

Patients with difficulty selecting words representing what they intend to say (seminatic paraphasia), along with difficulty in repeating sentences is most often associated with:
A. Broca aphasia
B. Conduction aphasia
C. Deficits in prosody
D. Wernicke aphasia
E. Transcortical aphasia

D. Wernicke aphasia
While conduction & transcortical aphasics have slight difficulties with word selection or repetition, they have many fewer than the correct answer
>Broca aphasia have articulation problems, not word selection problems.

understand language but not speak

Broca's

speak but not understand language.

Wernicke

at the junction of the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes

Wernicke's area

The motor program, located in _area was suitably situated in front of the motor area that controls the mouth, tongue, and vocal cords.

Broca's

The sensory program, located in __ area, was suitably surrounded by the posterior association cortex that integrates auditory, visual, and somatic sensations.

Wernicke's

the area where either written or spoken words were transformed into a common neural representation.

the angular gyrus

recognized as language and associated with meaning

Wernicke's area

These neural representations along with their associated meanings are then passed along, via the __, to Broca's area where it is transformed into a motor representation that allows for speech

arcuate fasiculus

Patients can comprehend and speak, but they omit parts of words and substitute incorrect sounds.
>They are aware of their errors but are unable to correct them.

conduction aphasia

wernickes model (oversimplification)

communication through words or symbols for words.

Language

By 6 years of age children understand about

13,000 words

by the end of high school about

60,000 words

children connect a new sound to a meaning about every

90 waking minutes.

Language is considered to develop in five phases.

In support of innate development of language,

all cultures learn language.
Even children together in a social environment but deprived of any developed language—invent their own language

In support of learned language,

young children deprived of language (e.g., parents are deaf or depraved) acquire language fully if learning takes place before puberty. If after puberty, they are very inept at language.

If an infant has its whole left hemisphere removed,

it will develop language fully in the right hemisphere.

If adults have left hemisphere removed

all language skills disappear forever

there appears to be a critical period for language acquisition

nurture

early language learningers

show highly left-lateralized activations

later language learners

show greater bilateral activation

hearing subjects english
fMRI brain images showing areas of increased blood flow when normals read English sentences

fMRI brain images showing areas of increased blood flow when deaf subjects read English sentences

fMRI brain images showing areas of increased blood flow when congenitally deaf ASL signers view sentences in ASL.

__is the rules that allow thoughts to be expressed in words and words connected into sentences when speaking and comprehending.

Grammar (includes: morphology, phonology, prosody, syntax)

specifies the rules for combining words into longer words by adding prefixes and suffixes so, for example, the subject and predicate will agree.

Morphology

specifies the rules for combining sound elements and phonemes into words. The sound elements do not have meaning in themselves, e.g., the letters D-O-G has a different meaning from the reverse G-O-D.

Phonology

is the pattern of intonation and stress that for example allows us to distinguish questions from statements.

Prosody

specifies how words are to be combined into phrases and sentences so that the meaning will be clear. An unclear example would be the line from Animal Crackers by Groucho Marx: "I once shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got into my pajamas I'll never know."

Syntax

Language is lateralized to the __hemisphere in about 96% of the population

left

Wernicke's area has been subdivided into different functions

1. frontal-temporal
2. parietal-temporal

Lesions of the frontal-temporal area produce

lexical deficits—problems in understanding meaning.

Lesions of the parietal-temporal region produce

syntactical deficits—problems in relating words in sentences.

Broca's and Wernicke's areas along with areas of the insular cortex and basal ganglia analyze incoming speech in terms of phonemes and other grammar.

Implementation system:

Areas of the temporal, parietal, and frontal association cortices that surround the implementation system. The __system fosters communication between the implementation system and conceptual system

Mediational system:`

Areas distributed throughout the association cortices that are important in learning, memory, and conceptual knowledge. These are associative areas considered in the next lecture, Higher Order Cortical Function: Association and Executive Areas.

Conceptual system:

brocas aphasia

Wernicke Aphasia

Conduction Aphasia

appear normal in comprehension. Their speech, however, is obviously impaired. Speech is slow. Articulation is impaired and melodic intonation (Prosody) is lacking. The difficulty is not so much in pronunciation of individual sounds as in transitions from one sound to another sound. Thus, there is not a smooth articulation of flowing speech.
might say "2...2...2...2...want to...to...to...go...go...go...home."
This is a grammar deficit, but grammar is by no means totally absent.
put words in the correct order: subject-verb-object.
They discriminate some grammatical from ungrammatical sentences,
>thought to be a memory problem; as the gap between elements to be linked becomes longer, these patients have more trouble

Broca aphasics

Speech is fluent, effortless, and melodic,
content, however, is often jumbled
phonemes of individual words can become jumbled
words are unintelligible—and are called neologisms.
difficulty in word retrieval, and cannot select words that represent what they intend to say
difficulty comprehending speech of others

Wernicke Aphasia

difficulty in word retrieval, and cannot select words that represent what they intend to say

semantic paraphasia

words are unintelligible—and are called

neologisms.

Lesions in Wernicke area of deaf people loose ability to

comprehend sign (ASL).

Those with lesions in Broca's area of deaf ppl lose the ability to

make signs

Speech production and comprehension are less affected than in Broca or Wernicke aphasias. They cannot repeat sentences accurately. And they have trouble naming pictures and objects.
>destroy many interconnections among the temporal, parietal, insular and frontal cortices that are responsible for assembling phonemes into word

Conduction Aphasia

TPJ

left auditory assoc cortex

damage to pathways in addition to damage of language areas. The pathways that are damaged are those that connect language areas to other parts of the brain.

Transcortical Aphasia

is a disconnection of the language areas from areas that initiate and control speech. For example, these patients have trouble saying "kick" in response to "ball", even though they use these same words correctly in ordinary speech. They can, however, repeat even very long sentences.
>damage to the left dorsolateral frontal area. This is an area anterior and superior to Broca's area.

Transcortical motor aphasia

have fluent speech with impaired comprehension—very much like Wernicke aphasics. But unlike Wernicke aphasics, they can repeat sentences accurately.
>damage to in the area of the junction of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

Transcortical sensory aphasics

have all of the disabilities of Broca, Wernicke, and Conduction combined. They cannot comprehend, repeat sentences, or speak meaningfully.
>>They do, however, speak in expletives, and can recite such things as the days of the week.
>>damage to anterior language region, basal ganglia and insula (as in Broca aphasia), posterior language region (as in Wernicke aphasia) and superior temporal gyrus (as in conduction aphasia).
>> infarct in the middle cerebral artery.

Global Aphasia

is the inability to control muscles of articulation and produces speech that is weak, flaccid and systematically distorted.

Dysarthria

is a deficit in planning the desired speech movements and produces errors phonemically similar to the target word, for example saying "yawyer" for "lawyer" or "cookun" for "cushion".
>nearly always occurs in Broca's aphasia and accounts for the slow effortful style characteristic of Broca's aphasics

Apraxia

patients who have all have lesions of the insula (island of cortex) located at the superior tip of the precentral gyrus.

apraxia but not Broca aphasia

naming of animals is apparently located in the

medial occipital cortex

naming of tools appears to be in the

left middle temporal gyrus.

cannot place the appropriate stress, timing or intonation on words in their sentences
>right hemisphere controls

Prosody

right inferior frontal gyrus is the site for

articulating or producing prosody.

right posterior temporoparietal region is the site for

comprehending prosody.

School teached had feelings of anger when the students misbehaved and desire to assert her authority in order to reestablish control, but she could not convey these feelings because she could not place appropriate stress on her speech.

prosody deficit

cannot comprehend emotional tone of others that are speaking.
>These patients don't understand jokes and have difficulty relating to people in social gatherings

prosody deficit

inability to read
.results from disruption of visual input from both hemispheres to the language areas of the left hemisphere

Alexia

is the inability to write

agraphia

hypotheses
1. there may be abnormalities in connections between visual and language areas.
2. there might be a deficit in hemispheric specialization; incomplete segregation of cell layers. There are clusters of neurons that appear to be inappropriately connected. Maybe the migration of neurons to the left temporal cortex during development was slowed or somehow disrupted.
3. conduction velocity in the magnocellular pathway of the visual system is slowed >>trouble processing fast, high-contrast stimuli, like words.

Dyslexia

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