Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
poetry with a regular meter
a verse line having four metrical feet
a verse line having five metrical feet
a verse line having six metrical feet
a stressed foot
an unstressed foot
a metrical unit with unstressed-stressed syllables
a metrical unit with unstressed-unstressed-stressed syllables
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed-unstressed syllables
a metrical unit with stressed-unstressed-unstressed syllables
a line that comes to a full stop with a punctuation mark
a line that forces it's way on the the next line, often for a specific meaning in the poem: building speed, imagery
a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line
the pattern of rhyme in a poem
In poetry, a Ballad stanza is the four-line stanza, known as a quatrain, most often found in the folk ballad. This form consists of alternating four- and three-stress lines. Usually only the second and fourth lines rhyme (in an a/b/c/b pattern).
Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd
English (Shakespearean) Sonnet
consists of 3 quatrains and a couplet, usually rhyming abab cdcd efef gg
highly structured poem consisting of six stanzas: five tercets and a quatrain; first and third line are repeated throughout
Types of Imagery
sight- visual smell-olfactory hearing- auditory touch- tactile taste- gusatory
Poetry and Origins in Life (Private, Public, Nature and Time)
Poetry starts within and has always shared common themes: life, death, nature, love, etc.
Poetry and Cliché
Poetry plays with and uses cliché
Poetry and Disequilibrium
Poetry pushes the boundaries of our comforts and tackles what we are unfamiliar with or afraid of.
Poetry and Poignancy
Poetry that makes us feel and is deep, stirring and poignant.
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
representing an abstract quality or idea as a person or creature
anything that stands for or represents something else. Symbols can have established meaning such as cultural, spiritual, or historical associations, or they can take unmeaning in their own context.
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
passing reference or indirect mention
the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression
an idea that is implied or suggested
having power or authority, speakers of the poem usually have the most agency.
the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
Any verbal or nonverbal message as part of an interaction; the basic building block of the social universe people create; threats, promises, insults, compliments, etc
Acknowledging (Speech Act)
Questioning (Speech Act)
Lamenting (Speech Act)
something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation
a class of art (or artistic endeavor) having a characteristic form or technique
a poem about dawn; a morning love song; or a poem about the parting of lovers at dawn
Ekphrasis (Lyric Subgenre)
A poem about a work of art
Elegy (Lyric Subgenre)
A poem about death
Nativity Poem (Lyric Subgenre)
A poem about birth
The Narrative Poem/Narrative Impulse
Poetry that tells a story, or attempts to tell a story.
The Lyric Poem
"a spontaneously melodic expression" (opposed to narrative or dramatic poetry
The Romantic Period and the Turn to the Self (3 Changes)
Romanticism and Philosophical Change:
the turn to imagination, feeling, and nature.
Romanticism and Sociopolitical Change:
the turn to individual liberty and creativity.
Romanticism and Aesthetic Change:
formal strategies that result from these turns.
Victorian Period and the Context of the Poet's Work
1830-1901 This was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military progress in England.
genre of art and literature that makes a self-conscious break with previous genres
1 Cause of Modernism
Swift changes and grown in technology; WWI
1 Modernist Movement (Other than Imagism)
Futurism: deeply infatuated with the machine: its shapes and forms, its distances and speeds, and its brutality and violence.
social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative with pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations
Traits of Postmodern Art
Questioning Authority and Irony.
self-consciousness and reflexivity
the turn to the body, to the local, to the previously taboo lifestyle or identity
irony, parody and pastiche
challenging conventional reading practices
mixing of the conventions of popular and 'high art'
The Post-Lyric Lyric (Divergence from Tradition)
re-conceiving the concept of the maker, the authority of the individual poet,
expanding the range of what constitutes a poem,
working with changing technologies to expand our understanding of the page,
reconsidering the role of the audience and performance.
Historical Poetry (Essential Features)
Poetry about historical events or figures
Poetry that is about a specific place.
a self tormented outcast who is cynical and contemptuous of societal norms and is suffering from some unnamed or mysterious sin
a poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener
a movement by American and English poets early in the 20th century in reaction to Victorian sentimentality
The Beat Generation is a term used to describe a group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, and the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired (later sometimes called "beatniks")
New York School
an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians active in the 1950s, 1960s in New York City; often drew inspiration from Surrealism and the contemporary avant-garde art movements, in particular action painting, abstract expressionism, Jazz, improvisational theater, experimental music, and the interaction of friends in the New York City art world's vanguard circle;
Sir Thomas Wyatt,
"Whoso List to Hunt, I Know Where Is an Hind" (Blackboard)
Percy Bysshe Shelley,
"Anthem for Doomed Youth" (548)
"I Am" (419)
"Song for the Deer and Myself to Return On" (175)
"IntraVenus" (in BCP 75)
"The Brain—is wider than the Sky—"
"Musée des Beaux Arts" (383)
"The Portrait" (514)
"One for All Newborns" (545)
E. E. Cummings,
"One Art" (175)
Lorna Dee Cervantes,
"Poema para los Californios Muertos" (176)
"Cardiogram" (in BCP 35)
"Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye During a Tour" (257)
William Butler Yeats,
"An Irish Airman Forsees His Death" (200)
"Her Kind" (210)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
"106 (Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky)" (611)
"Dover Beach" (146)
"This Be the Verse" (515)
"Ave Maria" (547)
T. S. Eliot
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" (201)
"Paradoxes and Oxymorons" (378)
"Facing It" (24)
"From 33" (372)
Julie Cameron Gray,
"Widow Fantasies" (in BCP 41)
"In a Station of the Metro" (561)
"My Last Duchess" (170)
"The Teacher's Pass the Popcorn" (584)
"Sonnet 18" (574)
Metaphor and Simile
compare unlike things, rest on a difference.
Metonymy and Synecdoche
"rest on congruences and correspondences"
"A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole." Arp and Johnson, for the sake of ease, subsume synecdoche under the term metonymy (430).
"A figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience." More specifically, "the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant" (427).
"the comparison is not expressed but created when a figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal term" (73).
"the comparison is expressed by the use of some word or phrase, such as like, as, than, similar to, resembles, or seems" (73).
Figure of Speech
"Broadly, any way of saying something other than the ordinary way; more narrowly, a way of saying one thing and meaning another" (425).
"Language employing figures of speech, language that cannot be taken literally or only literally" (425).
Lorna Dee Cervantes
"Poema para los Californios Muertos" (176)
The feeling of being moved.
a work of mourning written in response to the death of a person or persons, or even to the loss of a way of life.
poems about works of art (or "a verbal representation of a visual representation").