Human Geography: Unit 6

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Alexis Nguyennnn

acid rain

by-product of air pollution, which forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere by bruning fossil fuels

agglomeration

If several industries cluster in one city, they can provide support by sharing talents, services, and facilities. explains location of industry

break-of-bulk

transfer of cargo fromone type of carrier to another

bulk-reducing industries, bulk-gaining industries

- usually locates factories close to raw materials because the raw materials are heavier and bulkier than the finished products

-factory locations are usually determined by accessibility to the market

capitalist world economy

a global economic system that is based in high-income nations with market economies

compressed modernity

rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions

conglomerate corporations

comprised of many smaller firms that support the overall industry

deglomeration

the exodus of businesses from a crowded area

deindustrialization

a phenomenon where employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment has fallen dramatically in the more developed countries

dependency theory

holds that economic development of many countries in the world is blocked by the fact that industrialized nations exploit them.

distance decay

Largely because of the friction of distance, industries are more likely to serve markets of nearby places than those far away. As distance increased, business activity decreases until it becomes impractical to do business.

economic development

the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology

economic geography

a discipline that studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities

export-oriented industrialization

directly integrates their economies into the global economy by concentrating on economic production to find a place in international markets

footloose industry

neither resource or market oriented

friction of distance

Although secondary industry may transport raw materials to factories, the cost usually goes up the farther the distance of transport form source to factory. At some point, the distance is too great for practical transportation

fossil fuels

residues of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago

global warming

the increase in earth's temperature caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels

GDP, GDP per capita

the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year; a measure of the average person's contribution to generating a country's wealth in a year

greenhouse effect

an anticipated warming of earth's surface that could melt the polar icecaps and raise the level of the oceans enough to destroy coastal cities

industrialization

the process by which economic activities on the earth's surface evolved from producing basic, primary goods (such as food products) to using factories for mass-producing goods for consumption

Industrial Revolution

began industrialization in England during the late 18th century

Infrastructure

services that support economic activities

international division of labor

where some components of products are made in one country and others in another

Kanto Plain

Japan's dominant region of industrialization, which includes Tokyo and other nearby cities and suburbs that form a huge metropolitan area

labor intensive industries

industries that require a lot of hard work

location theory

explains the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern

locational interdependence theory

the influence on a firm's locational decision by locations chosen by its competitors

maquiladora district

A manufacturing zone that was created in the 1969s in northern Mexico just south of the border with the US.

Meiji Restoration

a remarkable government-sponsored campaign for modernization and colonization

modernization model

(also called the westernization model) states that Britain was first to reach industrialization because of prosperity, trade connections, inventions, and natural resources. other British colonies followed because they were influenced by British economic ways. If other countries want to experience the same benefits of westernization, they must study the paths taken by industrialized countries.Tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development.

more developed country, less developed country

countries that have experienced industrialization; countries that have no experienced industrialization

NAFTA

a treaty signed in 1995 by Mexico, the US, and Canada, which eliminated barriers (including most tariffs) to free trade among the three countries

new international division of labor

a process that keeps global inequalities in place

newly industrializing country

countries that have experienced economic growth and are somewhere between MDC and LDC status

Northeast District (China)

China's earliest industrial heartland in Manchuria, centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang

Oligarchs (Japan)

industrial and military leaders that came to political power

Pacific Rim

countries that border the Pacific Ocean on their eastern shores

post-industrial societies

countries where most people are no longer employed in industry

primary economic activities, primary sector

directly extracts products from the earth

primary industry, secondary industry

- develops around the location of natural resources, such as the industrial belt in the British Midlands
- less dependent on resource location. raw materials may be transported to the factories for manufacture

proven reserve, potential reserve

- energy deposits that have been discovered
- undiscovered energy deposits

quaternary sector

often seen as a subset of the tertiary sector, includes jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing and disseminating information

Rostow, W.W., Rostow's stages

US economist & political theorist;

-traditional stage
-take-off stage
-drive to technological maturity
-high mass consumption

secondary economic activities, secondary sector

transforms raw materials into usable products, giving them usefulness

secondary industrial region

lie south of the world's primary industrial region. developed later, and their industrial centers are not as large, but their economies are growing

single market manufacturers

sells one type of product, such as clothing manufacturers shipping to New York CIty, cluster near their markets

site factors

particular to a geographic location and focus on varying costs of land, labor, and capital

social development

an alteration in the social structure of a social group or society, ie. a change in the nature, social institutions, social behaviours or social relations of a society.

space-time compression

describes the reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distance place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Special Economic Zones

government-designated areas where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged

substitution principle

suggests that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation and other costs don't all go up at one time

sustainable development

where people living today should not impair the ability of future generations to meet their needs

tertiary sector

part of the economy that involves services rather than goods

trading blocs

conglomerations of trade among countries within a region

transnational corporations

companies that operate factories in countries other than the ones in which they are headquartered

value added productivity

figured by subtracting the costs of raw materials and energy from the gross value of the product

variable revenue analysis

the firm's ability to capture a market that will earn it more customers and money than its competitors

Wallerstien, Emanuel

first explained economic development in 1974 using a model of the capitalist world economy

Watt, James

created the steam engine, which allowed much more flexible use of energy to drive new machines

Weber, Alfred

German economic geography who developed a model for the location of secondary industries and published "Theory of the Location of Industries" in 1909.

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