The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992. It was the effect of the Balkan wars.
a geographical feature on land such as a valley, defile or a bridge, or at sea such as a straight which an armed force is forced to pass, therefore greatly decreasing its combat, in order to reach its objective.
A state that no longer exists or one in which the government is so weak that it has little control over its territory
a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
refers to the highly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan.