Chapter 39: Locomotion and Support Systems

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

Which of the following hormones stimulate osteoblasts to form bone?
A. erythropoietin
B. parathyroid hormone
C. growth hormone
D. sex hormones
E. Both C and D are correct

E. Both C and D are correct

The alternation of circular muscle contraction and longitudinal muscle contraction allows the earthworm to move forward. What type of support system aids locomotion in the earthworm?
A. an exoskeleton
B. an endoskeleton
C. a calcium carbonate shell
D. a hydrostatic skeleton

D. a hydrostatic skeleton

Which of the following statements about skeletons is NOT true?
A. The skeleton of a vertebrate is an endoskeleton.
B. The skeleton of an arthropod is an exoskeleton.
C. The skeleton of a clam is an exoskeleton.
D. All exoskeletons must be shed as the animal grows.
E. An earthworm has a fluid-filled cavity that acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.

D. All exoskeletons must be shed as the animal grows.

Which of the following statements about the insect exoskeleton is NOT true?
A. The exoskeleton protects insects against predators and drying out.
B. The insect exoskeleton is jointed and movable.
C. The insect exoskeleton grows with the organism.
D. The insect exoskeleton is made of a complex form of carbohydrate called chitin.
E. The insect exoskeleton has muscles attached to it from the inside of the body.

C. The insect exoskeleton grows with the organism.

Which of the following statements about the skeleton of a clam is NOT true?
A. The skeleton of a clam has two separate shells.
B. The skeleton of a clam grows with the organism.
C. The skeleton of a clam is made of calcium carbonate.
D. The skeleton of a clam is used mainly to allow movement of the organism.
E. The skeleton of a clam has muscles attached to it from the inside of the body.

D. The skeleton of a clam is used mainly to allow movement of the organism.

Which of the following functions is NOT a function of the human skeletal system?
A. protects internal organs
B. acts as a storage site for calcium and phosphorus ions
C. acts as the site of blood cell production in adults
D. acts as a structure against which muscles can contract
E. provides the ATP for muscles to use in contraction

E. provides the ATP for muscles to use in contraction

Which of the following statements about the nature of bone is true?
A. Bone is active, growing tissue with an extensive blood supply.
B. Bone is similar to cartilage, nearly inert, and with little blood supply.
C. Bone is active and living when formed by osteoblast but dies after it hardens.
D. Bone is nonliving calcium deposits and removing bone is a bloodless operation.
E. The outer compact bone is nonliving calcium, but the bone marrow is active living tissue.

A. Bone is active, growing tissue with an extensive blood supply.

Which of the following associations of bone structures and functions is not correct?
A. osteoblasts - cells that build bone tissue
B. osteoclasts - cells that break down bone tissue
C. osteons - tubular units of compact bone
D. red bone marrow - fat-storage tissue
E. lacunae - tiny chambers in concentric circles around a central canal

D. red bone marrow - fat-storage tissue

_____ are bone-absorbing cells and _____ are bone forming cells.
A. Menisci; osteroclasts
B. Chondrocytes; lymphocytes
C. Osteoclasts; osteoblasts
D. Eosinophils; red blood cells
E. Osteocytes; osteons

C. Osteoclasts; osteoblasts

___ will take calcium from the blood, whereas ___ will deposit calcium into the blood.
A. Osteoclasts; osteoblasts
B. Osteocytes; osteoclasts
C. Osteocytes; osteoblasts
D. Osteoblasts, osteocytes
E. Osteoblasts; osteoclasts

E. Osteoblasts; osteoclasts

Which of the following statements about the development of bone in humans is NOT true?
A. Bone breakdown and replacement occur throughout life.
B. A primary ossification center forms in the middle of a long bone.
C. A secondary ossification center forms at the end of a long bone.
D. Bones may form within a cartilage model or within a membrane matrix.
E. A cartilaginous disk remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers until old age.

E. A cartilaginous disk remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers until old age.

The type of bone tissue that is found in the middle portion of a long bone and has lacunae arranged in concentric circles around central canals that contain blood vessels and nerves is
A. spongy bone.
B. compact bone.
C. red marrow.
D. yellow marrow.
E. fibrous membrane.

B. compact bone.

Which of the following bones is (are) NOT part of the axial skeleton?
A. ribs
B. skull
C. sternum
D. scapula
E. A and B are not part of the axial skeleton.

D. scapula

Which of the following statements about the vertebrae is NOT true?
A. Twenty-six vertebrae make up the vertebral column.
B. The vertebrae form a dorsal backbone.
C. The vertebrae help form 4 curvatures of the spine.
D. The vertebrae are separated by intervertebral disks.
E. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord.

A. Twenty-six vertebrae make up the vertebral column.

Which of the following lists the correct order of vertebral regions from superior to inferior?
A. thoracic-lumbar-sacrum-cervical-coccyx
B. cervical-lumbar-sacrum-thoracic-coccyx
C. cervical-thoracic-lumbar-sacrum-coccyx
D. lumbar-sacrum-cervical-thoracic-coccyx
E. sacrum-cervical-thoracic-lumbar-coccyx

C. cervical-thoracic-lumbar-sacrum-coccyx

Which one of the following structures is NOT a part of the appendicular skeleton?
A. ribs
B. fibula
C. humerus
D. coxal
E. radius

A. ribs

The radius is to the ulna as the
A. tibia is to the femur.
B. fibula is to the ulna.
C. fibula is to the tibia.
D. humerus is to the femur.

C. fibula is to the tibia.

The elbow and knee are examples of ______ joints.
A. immovable
B. fibrous
C. cartilaginous
D. synovial
E. ball-and-socket

D. synovial

In crowded Asian regions such as Hong Kong, there is not enough room for cemeteries. However, the dead can be temporarily buried and their bones can later be exhumed and stored in an ossarium, a wall made of small concrete boxes (about eight inches by eight inches by two feet long) just large enough to contain all the human bones. These dimensions are defined by the longest bone in the human body and the bone with the largest volume, which are the ______ and the _____.
A. humerus; vertebrae
B. femur; skull
C. vertebrae; pelvis
D. radius; scapula
E. clavicle; metatarsals

B. femur; skull

In ______, the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickens, producing degenerative changes that make the joint immovable and painful.
A. rheumatoid arthritis
B. bursitis
C. bone cancer
D. muscular dystrophy
E. osteoarthritis

A. rheumatoid arthritis

Which of the following structures attaches muscle to the bone?
A. ligaments
B. joints
C. tendons
D. adipose tissue
E. sarcomere

C. tendons

The crescent-shaped pieces of cartilage between the bones in the knee are called
A. ligaments.
B. tendons.
C. spongy bone.
D. marrow.
E. menisci.

E. menisci.

The joints found between the vertebrae are classified as
A. immovable.
B. slightly movable.
C. freely movable.
D. synovial joints.
E. discoidal.

B. slightly movable.

_____ is a condition in many older women in which the bones become weak and thin.
A. Rheumatoid arthritis
B. Bursitis
C. Osteoarthritis
D. Osteoporosis
E. Meningitis

D. Osteoporosis

Women can lose as much as 35% of their bone mass due to osteoporosis. This disease can be avoided by which of the following?
A. consuming adequate calcium throughout life
B. exposure to sunlight to make vitamin D or a daily supplement of vitamin D
C. performing weight bearing exercise
D. All of the choices are ways to avoid osteoporosis.
E. A and C only are correct.

D. All of the choices are ways to avoid osteoporosis.

Which of the following statements about the muscular system is NOT true?
A. The human muscular system contains three kinds of muscle tissue.
B. Muscles work in antagonistic pairs across a joint.
C. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
D. Muscles can move a bone by pushing or pulling it as they contract.
E. Tetanus and tone are features of normal muscle tissue.

D. Muscles can move a bone by pushing or pulling it as they contract.

Actin and myosin filaments are both present in the dense region called the
A. A band.
B. Z line.
C. H zone.
D. I band.
E. M band.

A. A band.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions when stimulated directly by the
A. sarcolemma.
B. neuromuscular junction.
C. tropomyosin.
D. axon bulb.
E. T tubule.

E. T tubule.

Which list of structures is correctly organized from large to small?
A. muscle, muscle cell, myofibril, sarcomeres, filaments
B. muscle, muscle fibers, sarcomeres, filaments, myofibrils
C. muscle, sarcolemma, myofibrils, actin filaments, myosin filaments
D. muscle cells, myofibrils, filaments, sarcoplasm

A. muscle, muscle cell, myofibril, sarcomeres, filaments

What is the correct order that a motor nerve impulse travels when triggering a muscle contraction?
A. motor nerve-synaptic cleft-sarcolemma-sarcoplasmic reticulum-troponin
B. motor nerve-synaptic cleft-sarcolemma-troponin-sarcoplasmic reticulum
C. motor nerve-sarcoplasmic reticulum-synaptic cleft-sarcolemma-troponin
D. motor nerve-sarcolemma-sarcoplasmic reticulum-synaptic cleft-troponin
E. motor nerve-sarcolemma-synaptic cleft-sarcoplasmic reticulum-troponin

A. motor nerve-synaptic cleft-sarcolemma-sarcoplasmic reticulum-troponin

Which of the following associations of term and description is NOT a correct?
A. actin - thin filament
B. myosin - thick filament
C. sarcomere - the entire muscle cell or muscle fiber
D. sarcolemma - extensive plasma membrane

C. sarcomere - the entire muscle cell or muscle fiber

Calcium ions bind to
A. tropomyosin.
B. troponin.
C. actin.
D. myosin.
E. cross bridges.

B. troponin.

According to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction,
A. actin binds ATP and breaks it apart as actin pulls against myosin.
B. calcium ions are released from myosin as the filaments slide by.
C. the thick and thin filaments do not change length during this process.
D. an accordion-like pleat is formed as the myosin and actin interact.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. the thick and thin filaments do not change length during this process.

The system of flexing and extending muscles makes movement of appendages easy to understand. But how are some actions possible (sticking out your tongue, beating of your heart) when these structures have no bone structure with opposing flexors and extensors in them?
A. One set of muscle cells must therefore be able to both contract and expand.
B. These structures must be empty chambers, and fluids forced into them expand them.
C. Since muscle cells can only contract and relax, muscle cells running diagonally or crosswise amidst the longitudinal muscles must contract and force the long relaxed muscle cells to elongate.
D. This cannot be explained at present.

C. Since muscle cells can only contract and relax, muscle cells running diagonally or crosswise amidst the longitudinal muscles must contract and force the long relaxed muscle cells to elongate.

A maximal sustained muscle contraction is called a
A. twitch.
B. threshold.
C. tetanus.
D. tone.
E. summation.

C. tetanus.

Which of the following will increase during strenuous muscular activity?
A. oxygen
B. carbon monoxide
C. lactic acid
D. liver glycogen
E. myosin

C. lactic acid

What molecule is used to anaerobically regenerate ATP?
A. ADP
B. glucose
C. lactate
D. creatine phosphate
E. tropomyosin

D. creatine phosphate

_____ provides the energy for muscle contraction.
A. ATP
B. ADP
C. Creatine phosphate
D. Lactate
E. Glycogen

A. ATP

An oxygen debt occurs when
A. there is too much oxygen in the muscle tissues.
B. ATP is depleted, and the body starts to use creatine phosphate to supply new ATP.
C. ATP is depleted, and the body starts breaking down actin and myosin to allow muscle contraction to occur.
D. there is no oxygen for aerobic respiration, and the body must use lactic acid fermentation to produce ATP.
E. None of the choices are correct.

D. there is no oxygen for aerobic respiration, and the body must use lactic acid fermentation to produce ATP.

Muscle contraction is triggered
A. when high levels of oxygen and sugar are released by the sarcolemma.
B. when a surplus of ATP is released by a nerve motor unit.
C. by release of a neurotransmitter at a synapse that directly causes actin and myosin to slide.
D. by the nerve releasing a neurotransmitter, which triggers a flow of calcium that attaches to actin filaments and exposes the myosin binding sites.
E. by the nerve releasing a neurotransmitter, which triggers a flow of calcium that releases ATP and begins the actin filaments sliding across the myosin binding sites.

D. by the nerve releasing a neurotransmitter, which triggers a flow of calcium that attaches to actin filaments and exposes the myosin binding sites.

Which of these chemicals acts as an ATPase, breaking down ATP to perform its function in muscle contraction?
A. actin
B. myosin
C. tropomyosin
D. troponin
E. calcium

B. myosin

Name the neuromuscular transmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft.
A. sodium ions
B. calcium ions
C. ATP
D. creatine phosphate
E. acetylcholine

E. acetylcholine

Skeletal muscle contraction plays a role in all of the following EXCEPT
A. body support.
B. movement of the body and body parts.
C. manufacture of blood cells.
D. maintenance of a constant body temperature.

C. manufacture of blood cells.

In muscle innervation motor nerve fibers signal muscle movement at a region called the neuromuscular junction.
True False

True

Most meat consumed in the average human diet consists of skeletal muscle of animals such as chickens and cows.
True False

True

Disks between the vertebrae act as padding and shock absorbers, while allowing some movement at the joints.
True False

True

The pectoral girdle is adapted for great strength, whereas the pelvic girdle is more adapted for flexibility.
True False

False

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