Chapter 46: Major Ecosystems of the Biosphere

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

_____ lakes are nutrient rich and tend to have large populations of algae.
A. Oligotrophic
B. Eutrophic
C. Temperate
D. Stratified

B. Eutrophic

Ocean currents
A. are generated by friction between winds and ocean surfaces.
B. always move clockwise in an ocean basin.
C. are important in shipping but have little effect on living environments.
D. are driven by the Earth's core rotating faster than the ocean water.
E. All of the choices are correct.

A. are generated by friction between winds and ocean surfaces.

Incoming solar radiation affects
A. the rise and fall of air masses.
B. evaporation or precipitation of moisture.
C. the seasons.
D. All of these choices are directly or indirectly affected by solar radiation.
E. A and C only are correct.

D. All of these choices are directly or indirectly affected by solar radiation.

Major regional groups of interacting terrestrial ecosystems, characterized by climate and geography, are called
A. biospheres.
B. estuaries.
C. tundras.
D. taigas.
E. biomes.

E. biomes.

The Earth is actually farther from the sun during the period when the Northern Hemisphere is having summer. How can this be explained?
A. The sun grows more powerful on a half-year cycle.
B. There is a six-month lag phase between sunlight being absorbed and lost.
C. The tilt of the Earth presents the Northern Hemisphere in a more perpendicular angle, and this increased sunlight more than offsets the decrease in sunlight due to the added distance.
D. There must be some mistake in measuring the Earth's orbit because if the Earth were farther away, we would be cooler.

C. The tilt of the Earth presents the Northern Hemisphere in a more perpendicular angle, and this increased sunlight more than offsets the decrease in sunlight due to the added distance.

If the Earth was standing still (not rotating) and was a solid, uniform ball, wind directions would
A. cease.
B. run north and south.
C. run east and west.
D. remain the same since the Earth's rotation does not affect wind directions.

B. run north and south.

Climate is affected and/or characterized by all of the following factors EXCEPT
A. temperature.
B. variations in solar radiation distribution.
C. topography.
D. soil type
E. rainfall.

D. soil type

In the water cycle, evaporated equatorial water that rises and does not immediately rain back down proceeds to
A. the poles where it causes snow.
B. the poles if it does not encounter mountain ranges, which it usually does.
C. about 60 north or south and then cools and condenses, supporting a band of moist vegetation.
D. about 30 north or south and then cools and condenses, supporting a band of moist vegetation.

D. about 30 north or south and then cools and condenses, supporting a band of moist vegetation.

The spinning of the Earth
A. angles winds away from directly north-south toward the east or west.
B. causes mountain ranges to spin off moisture.
C. is the initial driving force for generating winds.
D. causes ocean currents to be directed "out" to the equator.
E. causes the tidal ebb and flow.

A. angles winds away from directly north-south toward the east or west.

All of the following are terrestrial biomes EXCEPT
A. tundra.
B. lentic systems.
C. coniferous forests.
D. savannas.
E. deserts.

B. lentic systems.

Minute animals that feed on phytoplankton are
A. chemosynthetic.
B. benthic.
C. scavengers.
D. zooplankton.

D. zooplankton.

Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by
A. dry climates with rainfall averages around of 25-75 cm per year.
B. the highest variation in day and night length.
C. the highest amount of organisms living in tree canopy.
D. a growing season that ranges between 140 and 300 days.
E. the richest topsoil horizon.

D. a growing season that ranges between 140 and 300 days.

The Gulf Stream
A. brings tropical Caribbean water to the east coast of North America and upper Western Europe.
B. makes local climates uniform so that Great Britain has the same climate as Greenland.
C. is the major Atlantic Ocean current that warms the eastern coast of South America.
D. is the source of "El Nino" and is a major fishing ground.
E. All of the choices are correct.

A. brings tropical Caribbean water to the east coast of North America and upper Western Europe.

In some climates, differences in land and ocean temperatures cause a gigantic circulation of air, with warm air rising over the land and cooler, ocean winds blowing onshore to replace it. As the warm air rises and looses its moisture, the rains begin. This process may last for almost half a year and is called
A. rain shadow.
B. lake effect.
C. upwelling.
D. monsoons.
E. profundal zone.

D. monsoons.

What biome has a mean annual precipitation over 250 cm with relatively little seasonal variation, and warm temperatures over 20C?

A. tropical dry forest
B. temperate rainforest
C. taiga
D. tropical rainforest
E. savanna

D. tropical rainforest

Kansas and Pennsylvania are approximately at the same latitude. Yet why are the potential natural communities in Kansas mostly grassland and in Pennsylvania mostly temperate forest?
A. different temperatures
B. different levels of moisture
C. different soil texture and pH levels
D. different vegetation due to different seed banks
E. different altitudes

B. different levels of moisture

The largest biome on Earth is the
A. tundra.
B. taiga.
C. temperate deciduous forest.
D. desert.
E. ocean (marine aquatic).

E. ocean (marine aquatic).

Which of the following biomes is characterized by little rainfall, permafrost, and an average temperature below 0C?
A. grasslands
B. tundra
C. desert
D. taiga
E. temperate deciduous forest

B. tundra

Which of the following biomes is characterized by rich soils, insufficient rainfall for trees, and many herbivores?
A. grasslands
B. chaparral
C. desert
D. taiga
E. tundra

A. grasslands

Which of the following does NOT characterize tundra?
A. permafrost
B. trees
C. shrub
D. caribou

B. trees

Which biome is characterized by rainfall under 25 cm/year, hot days, cold nights, and quickly blooming plants?
A. grasslands
B. temperate deciduous forest
C. temperate deserts
D. taiga
E. tundra

C. temperate deserts

The tropical grassland in Africa is called the
A. savanna.
B. chaparral.
C. prairie.
D. taiga.
E. tundra.

A. savanna.

The _____ support(s) the greatest variety and number of large herbivores.
A. chaparral of California
B. ocean
C. African savanna
D. taiga of Russia
E. tropical rainforests of South America

C. African savanna

A forest found in a broad belt in northern Eurasia and North America, with conifers and swamps, is called the
A. tropical rain forest.
B. tundra.
C. taiga.
D. chaparral.
E. temperate deciduous forest.

C. taiga.

In what order do these layers occur in deep lakes in the temperate zone? From the surface to the bottom of the lake, one would find the
A. epilimnion - thermocline - hypolimnion.
B. thermocline - epilimnion - hypolimnion.
C. hypolimnion - epilimnion - thermocline.
D. epilimnion - hypolimnion - thermocline.

A. epilimnion - thermocline - hypolimnion.

Coniferous forests are found in all of the following locations EXCEPT
A. coastal areas of the southeastern Unites States.
B. northern Africa and the extreme southwestern United States.
C. the Pacific coast of North America.
D. the northern part of North America and Eurasia.

B. northern Africa and the extreme southwestern United States.

A treeless region with little rainfall in the far north is the
A. grassland.
B. arctic tundra.
C. taiga.
D. chaparral.
E. desert.

B. arctic tundra.

Treeless biomes are treeless primarily because
A. there is limited sunlight.
B. there is a lack of water or the water is frozen.
C. there is no source of seed dispersal in the region.
D. trees are dependent upon the animals for support.
E. trees cannot withstand hot temperatures or below-freezing cold.

B. there is a lack of water or the water is frozen.

A biome with complex structure, warm weather, plentiful rainfall, and diverse species is a
A. tropical rainforest.
B. savanna.
C. taiga.
D. tundra.

A. tropical rainforest.

A biome characterized by hot days, cold nights, and cacti is the
A. tundra.
B. desert.
C. taiga.
D. tropical rain forest.

B. desert.

Freshwater and marine microscopic organisms that freely drift in fresh or salt water are called
A. plankton.
B. benthic.
C. abyssal.
D. neritic.
E. cryptic.

A. plankton.

The temperature is nearly uniform throughout a lake
A. during winter when the ice forms an insulating cover.
B. during summer when the sunlight warms the surface and the wind mixes the layers.
C. by the end of the fall and spring overturn.
D. at all times due to winds causing constant mixing of the layers.
E. never. The lake always has different temperature layers and they are reversed in winter and summer.

C. by the end of the fall and spring overturn.

Which of the following statements about stratified temperate zone lakes is NOT true?
A. Solar radiation warms the surface layers in summer.
B. Rich nutrients from the continual production of detritus accumulate near the surface of the lake.
C. Temperature gradients change from summer to winter.
D. Populations of plankton and zooplankton depend on both sunlight and nutrient levels.
E. Wind aids in the circulation of water.

B. Rich nutrients from the continual production of detritus accumulate near the surface of the lake.

The part of a body of water where light does not penetrate is the
A. littoral zone.
B. benthic division.
C. pelagic division.
D. profundal zone.
E. limnetic zone.

D. profundal zone.

The sunlit portion of a lake is specifically referred to as the
A. littoral zone.
B. limnetic zone.
C. profundal zone.
D. benthic zone.
E. abyssal zone.

B. limnetic zone.

The bottom of a lake or stream harbors worms, clams, and other organisms in the
A. littoral zone.
B. limnetic zone.
C. profundal zone.
D. benthic zone.
E. abyssal zone.

D. benthic zone.

Which association between zone and description is NOT correct?
A. littoral - lake zone closest to shore
B. benthic - stream, lake, or ocean floor
C. limnetic - lake zone on surface away from shore
D. bathypelagic - sunlit portion of the ocean

D. bathypelagic - sunlit portion of the ocean

There are tubeworms and clams that live at the bottom of the ocean near thermal vents. They derive their energy ultimately from
A. the sun by way of burning fossil fuels like we do with coal and oil.
B. the sun, but they are deep in the dark ocean and live off dead detritus that sink to them.
C. chemosynthetic bacteria.
D. sources not yet known.

C. chemosynthetic bacteria.

"El Nino" results in
A. poor fishing in some areas.
B. monsoons associated with Indian Ocean fail.
C. hurricanes off the west coast of the United States.
D. great warming of ocean water of the west coast of the Americas.
E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Wetlands are generally classified by their vegetation. Wetlands dominated by trees and shrubs are _______ and wetlands dominated by grasses and sedges are ____.
A. marshes; swamps
B. swamps; marshes
C. marshes; pine savannas
D. bogs; swamps

B. swamps; marshes

Which of the following is NOT strictly a freshwater community?
A. lakes
B. rivers
C. estuaries
D. streams
E. ponds

C. estuaries

When a cold, ocean current brings rich nutrients to the surface, it is called a(n)
A. guano.
B. lake effect.
C. upwelling.
D. monsoon.
E. profundal zone.

C. upwelling.

Among the many functions of wetlands is (are)
A. providing food and habitats for fish, waterfowl, and wildlife.
B. purifying water by filtering it and breaking down toxic wastes and nutrients.
C. absorbing storm and overflow waters.
D. All of the choices are functions performed by wetlands.

D. All of the choices are functions performed by wetlands.

The "nursery" of the sea is the
A. rocky beach.
B. sandy beach.
C. estuary.
D. coral reef.
E. ocean floor.

C. estuary.

A rain shadow is the region where heavy condensation precipitates out, as warm, moist air rises and then cools on the windward side of mountain ranges.
True False

False

The early explorers used sailing ships, which were blown by the major winds; therefore, Columbus and other sailors generally traveled from Europe to North America by the mid-latitude westerlies, and returned to Europe by the southern easterlies near the equator.
True False

False

Bioluminescence is found in some organisms living in the deepest part of the bathypelagic zone of the ocean.
True False

True

Trade winds are so named because sailors depended on them to fill the sails of their trading ships.
True False

True

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