Chapter 47: Conservation of Biodiversity

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

Which of the following are of extinction?
A. habitat loss
B. exotic species
C. pollution
D. A, B, and C only are correct.
E. A and C only are correct.

D. A, B, and C only are correct.

Which of the following statements about keystone species is NOT true?
A. The extinction of keystone species can lead to other extinctions and a loss of biodiversity.
B. Keystone species are defined as a population subdivided into several small isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation.
C. Examples of keystone species are grizzly bears, bats, beavers and alligators.
D. The numbers of individuals in the keystone species in their respective community may or may not be excessively high.

B. Keystone species are defined as a population subdivided into several small isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation.

Animals that are revered by humans due to their appearance or emotional ties are
A. flagship species.
B. keystone species.
C. endangered species.
D. threatened species.

A. flagship species.

Conservation biology supports all of the following ethical principles EXCEPT
A. biodiversity is desirable for the biosphere and humans.
B. all animals have the same rights or legal status as humans.
C. biodiversity has value in and of itself regardless of any practical human benefits.
D. extinctions due to human actions are undesirable.
E. the complex interactions of ecosystems support biodiversity and are desirable.

B. all animals have the same rights or legal status as humans.

Which of the following statements about biological diversity is NOT true?
A. Scientists estimate that 10-50 million species exist.
B. Biodiversity is described in terms of genetic, community, and landscape diversity.
C. Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth.
D. Biodiversity is evenly distributed throughout the biosphere.
E. Many species that are in danger of extinction have not been identified and studied.

D. Biodiversity is evenly distributed throughout the biosphere.

Introduction of alien or exotic species into new ecosystems occurs by
A. colonization when new settlers arrive in an area.
B. accidental transport by ship or plane without anyone's knowledge.
C. agricultural and horticultural activities.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C only are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

Madagascar is considered a biodiversity "hotspot" because
A. it originated as a volcanic island.
B. it has lost nearly all of its native species to extinction.
C. it contains an unusually high concentration of species.
D. it has resisted habitat destruction that has caused extinctions elsewhere.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. it contains an unusually high concentration of species.

Biodiversity "frontiers" are areas that
A. have high rates of extinction.
B. lack diversity.
C. have many more species than formerly thought.
D. are replacing native species with exotic species.
E. are fragile in comparison with other ecosystems.

C. have many more species than formerly thought.

Rosy periwinkle, the nine-banded armadillo, and some species of fungus and bacteria have _________ value to man.
A. agricultural
B. medicinal
C. consumptive use
D. indirect
E. no

B. medicinal

Biodiversity is a resource of immense value. All of the following are ways in which biodiversity is directly valuable to humans EXCEPT
A. agricultural.
B. medicinal.
C. consumptive use.
D. contributions to biogeochemical cycles.

D. contributions to biogeochemical cycles.

The use of noncultivated fruit, animal skins, fiber, beeswax, and fish are examples of the ______ value of biodiversity.
A. agricultural use
B. medicinal use
C. consumptive use
D. contributions to the biogeochemical cycles

C. consumptive use

The use of wheat, corn, rice and other crops derived from wild ancestors is an example of the _______ value of biodiversity.
A. agricultural
B. medicinal
C. consumptive use
D. climatic regulation

A. agricultural

Which of the following statements concerning the indirect values of biodiversity is NOT correct?
A. Trees take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen when they photosynthesize.
B. Forests act as a sponge to soak up water and release it during drier periods.
C. If biodiversity cannot maintain the biogeochemical cycles, then technology will have to artificially create those cycles.
D. Diverse organisms are critical in breaking down wastes and immobilizing pollutants.
E. All of the choices are correct. None of these statements are incorrect.

C. If biodiversity cannot maintain the biogeochemical cycles, then technology will have to artificially create those cycles.

When habitats are fragmented so that populations are subdivided into several small and isolated groups, they form a
A. sink population.
B. biodiversity hotspot.
C. keystone species.
D. source population.
E. metapopulation.

E. metapopulation.

A _______ population lives in favorable conditions where the birthrate exceeds the death rate and individuals move into other, less successful, fragmented populations.
A. sink
B. source
C. keystone
D. meta
E. hotspot

B. source

In spite of hundreds of millions of dollars spent on insecticides targeted at pest control for agricultural and medical purposes, man has been unable to drive any to extinction. On the other hand, the extinction of many species of birds, fishes, plants, and insects species have occurred as a result of
A. hunting.
B. farming.
C. disease.
D. habitat destruction.
E. scientific collecting.

D. habitat destruction.

Which of the following statements about extinction is TRUE?
A. Overexploitation by hunting and fishing is the major threat to tropical animals and plants.
B. Without human activity, all species would survive and there would be no extinctions.
C. Endangered wild species often become extinct due to different combinations of factors.
D. Commercial hunting and fishing are careful not to deplete animal reserves.
E. Introduction of new exotic species helps preserve biodiversity and slow extinction.

C. Endangered wild species often become extinct due to different combinations of factors.

Which of the following statements about tropical rainforests is NOT true?
A. Tropical rain forest land contains rich soil that is desirable as farmland.
B. Cattle ranchers in South and Central America temporarily benefit from deforestation.
C. Tropical rain forests are being destroyed by farmers using slash-and-burn agriculture.
D. Government subsidies and roads are necessary to begin the process of deforestation on a large scale.
E. Logging is a serious threat to tropical rain forests, as less developed countries cut down their forests for rapid economic gain.

A. Tropical rain forest land contains rich soil that is desirable as farmland.

As "civilization" spread around the world, several species benefitted greatly from new human-made habitats, including the house fly, the Norwegian rat, and many crop plants. Generally, with expansion of human populations and agriculture,
A. there has been an increase in biological diversity.
B. biological diversity has remained the same, with human-associated organisms replacing the few natural species displaced.
C. biological diversity has decreased but mainly with the elimination of pests by humans.
D. biological diversity is decreasing at an accelerating rate with the elimination of many unstudied species.

D. biological diversity is decreasing at an accelerating rate with the elimination of many unstudied species.

When the factors causing habitat decline are identified and a procedure is developed to remedy this, it is
A. the edge effect.
B. a habitat restoration plan.
C. a population viability analysis.
D. a gap analysis.
E. landscape dynamics.

B. a habitat restoration plan.

Which of the following organisms is NOT an example of an alien or exotic species?
A. zebra mussels introduced to the Great Lakes
B. dandelions planted by pioneers as salad greens
C. the mongoose brought to Hawaii to control rats
D. water hyacinths
E. All of these are examples of introduced alien species.

E. All of these are examples of introduced alien species.

_______ is (are) associated with 85% of the cases of threatened and endangered species.
A. Pollution
B. Habitat loss
C. Overexploitation
D. Disease
E. Exotic species

B. Habitat loss

Which of the following statements about pollution is NOT true?
A. When the ozone shield is destroyed, excess ultraviolet light reaches the Earth.
B. Water vapor and sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides combine to form wet or dry acid deposits.
C. A lake can die due to eutrophication, which is a lack of nutrients.
D. Synthetic chemicals can mimic hormones and cause abnormal growth and behavior in wild animals.
E. CFCs, like Freon, have chlorine atoms that breakdown the ozone shield.

C. A lake can die due to eutrophication, which is a lack of nutrients.

The greenhouse effect is
A. due to increased sunlight in recent years.
B. caused by increased plant life and photosynthesis.
C. a natural phenomenon due to absorption of sunlight and re-radiating of the heat.
D. a manmade hazard due to decreased levels of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere in recent years.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. a natural phenomenon due to absorption of sunlight and re-radiating of the heat.

The effect of global warming on coral reefs is
A. negligible, since they will be protected underwater.
B. minor since all marine environments are moderated by the great ability of water to hold temperatures constant.
C. negative, since a rise of a few degrees will cause them to bleach and become lifeless.
D. positive, since the higher temperatures will increase photosynthesis in the mutualistic algae.
E. positive, since the greater sunlight to penetrate the sea will increase photosynthesis in the mutualistic algae.

C. negative, since a rise of a few degrees will cause them to bleach and become lifeless.

The situation with major oceanic fishing areas is
A. good, since the oceans are so large, they are the one remaining natural ecosystem that is not susceptible to extinction.
B. generally positive, with only one or two of the 15 major oceanic fishing areas over-exploited.
C. generally negative, with 11 of the 15 major oceanic fishing areas overexploited.
D. positive for the bottom dwellers that are protected but negative for the schools of swimming fish.
E. negative for the bottom dwellers that are over-fished by trawling but positive for the schools of swimming fish that can easily get away.

C. generally negative, with 11 of the 15 major oceanic fishing areas overexploited.

_______ when the number of individuals taken from a wild population is so great that the population becomes severely reduced in number.
A. Overexploitation occurs
B. A source population is formed
C. An "edge effect" occurs
D. Eutrophication occurs

A. Overexploitation occurs

A _______ population survives in unfavorable conditions, has a birthrate that barely equals the death rate, and receives new members from other fragmented populations.
A. keystone
B. sink
C. meta
D. exotic
E. source

B. sink

The Everglades ecosystem
A. no longer receives water from natural sources as in the past and is drying out.
B. contains sawgrass prairie and mangrove sloughs.
C. has diverse bird, wildlife, and growing seasons
D. A, B, and C are correct.
E. B and C only are true.

D. A, B, and C are correct.

Which of the following associations is (are) incorrect?
A. biodiversity - variety of life on Earth
B. landscape diversity - involves a group of interacting ecosystems
C. genetic diversity - variations in the species composition of communities at different locales
D. ecosystem diversity - variations among the members of a population
E. C and D are incorrect.

E. C and D are incorrect.

The science of collecting, analyzing, and making readily available biological information is
A. habitat restoration planning.
B. landscape preservation.
C. bioinformatics.
D. a population viability analysis.

C. bioinformatics.

______ is a phenomenon in which the edges around a landscape patch provide a slightly different habitat than the favorable habitat in the interior of the patch.
A. The edge effect
B. Overexploitation
C. Sustainable development
D. Landscape preservation
E. Eutrophication

A. The edge effect

Each year, both forests and prairie grasslands are burned by fires, some started by lightning strikes and others caused by humans. However, many grasses are fire-adapted or dependent upon occasional fires to maintain their prairie system. Some pine trees are so dependent upon fire that they cannot propagate without it. Does this contradict our concerns about air pollution and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide levels in the atmosphere?
A. Yes; fire is detrimental and further research should be done to correct the apparent biological adaptations that contradict eliminating all fires possible.
B. Yes; fire is detrimental in natural environments and these apparent adaptations are artificial situations due to human distortion of natural systems.
C. No; the environmental concerns listed in the text are all extremist concerns with no basis in factual data.
D. No; as with all complex systems, it is a matter of proportion; the current trend towards atmospheric pollution is far beyond the Earth's normal low level of natural fires, the effects of which were easily handled.

D. No; as with all complex systems, it is a matter of proportion; the current trend towards atmospheric pollution is far beyond the Earth's normal low level of natural fires, the effects of which were easily handled.

Nitrogen oxides from automobile exhaust and sulfur dioxides from power plants combine with atmospheric water vapor to produce a weak acids, that may result in
A. the greenhouse effect.
B. ozone depletion.
C. acid rain or snow.
D. photochemical smog.
E. global warming.

C. acid rain or snow.

Global warming
A. is an increase in the average temperature of the Earth.
B. may cause a rise in the sea level that will inundate coastal wetlands.
C. may cause extinction of some land organisms, but biodiversity may increase.
D. is increased by elevated levels of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.
E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Landscape preservation is often intended for one particular organism but may benefit others.
True False

True

Forests and other ecosystems may decrease the chances of flooding in an area due to their water-holding capacity.
True False

True

Preliminary studies indicate that biodiversity maximizes resource acquisition and retention within an ecosystem.
True False

True

Depletion of the ozone layer will lead to increased crop production and enhanced immune systems.
True False

False

Release of organic chemicals into surface waters is good for the organisms that live in the waters, since the wastes add to the nutrients present for the food chains in the water.
True False

False

Biodiversity is described in terms of genetic, community, and landscape diversity.
True False

True

Penicillin is derived from a fungus and certain species of bacteria produce tetracycline and streptomycin.
True False

True

Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that attempts to preserve the environment while meeting the needs of humans in the present and future.
True False

True

Scientists estimate that at least 50-60% of all species now living will most likely become extinct in the next 20-50 years unless planned, coordinated action takes place.
True False

False

Rabbits were introduced to Australia by pioneer settlers in the mid 1800s for sporting hunters. They have since stressed native marsupial and plant populations. This is an example of the introduction of exotic species through accidental transport.
True False

True

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