Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
blood cells and large particles
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
net filtration would decrease
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
25 mm Hg
Which of the choices below best describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initiated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?
release of ANP and BNP
What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?
Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR?
Sympathetic fibers override local controls to decrease the GFR.
What are the two main parts of the nephron?
the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?
afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole
Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the tissues
Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman's capsule?
white blood cells
Which structures form the filtration membrane in the nephron?
glomerulus and the glomerular capsule
Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?
decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing the afferent arteriole diameter
Which of the following resulted in a decrease in glomerular capillary pressure?
increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter
What is the normal range for glomerular filtration rate?
80 - 140 ml/min
What is(are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron?
hydrostatic pressure gradients, osmotic pressure gradients and Starling forces
The functions of the nephron include all of the following EXCEPT _______.
In this activity, we will explore the effect of _______.
blood pressure on glomerular filtration rate
What is the name for the "ball" of capillaries found in the renal corpuscle?
As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?
Glomerular filtration rate increased, and urine volume increased.
The pressure in the left source beaker simulates _______.
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, _______.
urine volume was zero
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _______.
the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased
Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______.
glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis
Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arteriole occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as _______.
Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate?
increasing the efferent arteriole radius and decreasing the afferent arteriole radius
In this activity, the drain beaker (second beaker in the flow) simulates the _______.
When the beaker pressure was lowered, which of the following decreased?
glomerular pressure, glomerular filtration rate and urine volume
When blood pressure increases, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate?
constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole
When the efferent arteriole constricts, _______.
the back pressure in the Bowman's capsule increases
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
Glucose is reabsorbed _______.
All of the above are correct.
Glucose reabsorption occurs in the _______.
proximal convoluted tubule
Glucose is transported _______.
through the basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion
As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the _______.
distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased
At which concentration of glucose carriers was the glucose concentration reduced to zero?
When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______.
glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed
ADH is produced in the _______.
The secretion of aldosterone is directly stimulated by _______.
The secretion of ADH is directly stimulated by _______.
a change in body fluid osmolarity
Which of the following is(are) hormones?
ADH and aldosterone
The addition of aldosterone _______.
decreased the urine volume
With ADH added but in the absence of aldosterone, _______.
the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased
The urine was the most concentrated _______.
with both ADH and aldosterone
Which hormone had the greater effect on urine volume?
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