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Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?

blood cells and large particles

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?

hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)

Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?


If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?

net filtration would decrease

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.

25 mm Hg

Which of the choices below best describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute

Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)

What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?


Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initiated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?

renin-angiotensin system

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?

afferent arterioles

In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?

release of ANP and BNP

What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?


Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR?

Sympathetic fibers override local controls to decrease the GFR.

What are the two main parts of the nephron?

the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule

Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?

afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the tissues

Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman's capsule?

white blood cells

Which structures form the filtration membrane in the nephron?

glomerulus and the glomerular capsule

Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?

decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing the afferent arteriole diameter

Which of the following resulted in a decrease in glomerular capillary pressure?

increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter

What is the normal range for glomerular filtration rate?

80 - 140 ml/min

What is(are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron?

hydrostatic pressure gradients, osmotic pressure gradients and Starling forces

The functions of the nephron include all of the following EXCEPT _______.

glomerular secretion

In this activity, we will explore the effect of _______.

blood pressure on glomerular filtration rate

What is the name for the "ball" of capillaries found in the renal corpuscle?


As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?

Glomerular filtration rate increased, and urine volume increased.

The pressure in the left source beaker simulates _______.

blood pressure

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, _______.

urine volume was zero

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _______.

the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased

Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______.

glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis

Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arteriole occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as _______.


Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate?

increasing the efferent arteriole radius and decreasing the afferent arteriole radius

In this activity, the drain beaker (second beaker in the flow) simulates the _______.

renal vein

When the beaker pressure was lowered, which of the following decreased?

glomerular pressure, glomerular filtration rate and urine volume

When blood pressure increases, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate?

constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole

When the efferent arteriole constricts, _______.

the back pressure in the Bowman's capsule increases

Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?


During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?

an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium

The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?

the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane

The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?


Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?

Na+-H+ countertransport

What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?

number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane

Glucose is reabsorbed _______.

All of the above are correct.

Glucose reabsorption occurs in the _______.

proximal convoluted tubule

Glucose is transported _______.

through the basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion

As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the _______.

distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased

At which concentration of glucose carriers was the glucose concentration reduced to zero?


When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______.

glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed

ADH is produced in the _______.


The secretion of aldosterone is directly stimulated by _______.

angiotensin II

The secretion of ADH is directly stimulated by _______.

a change in body fluid osmolarity

Which of the following is(are) hormones?

ADH and aldosterone

The addition of aldosterone _______.

decreased the urine volume

With ADH added but in the absence of aldosterone, _______.

the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased

The urine was the most concentrated _______.

with both ADH and aldosterone

Which hormone had the greater effect on urine volume?




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