Key Terms - Heart

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Key terms ofor the heart on page 344.

Pericardium

encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches.

Epicardium

the visceral pericardium, protects the heart by reducing friction.

Myocardium

the thick middle layer which consists mostly of cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of the heart chambers.

Endocardium

the inner layer which consists of epithelium and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagenous fibers.

Atria

upper chambers whihch have thin walls and recieve blood returning to the heart.

Ventricles

the lower chambers which recieve blood from the atriaand contract to force blood out of the heart into the arteries.

Tricuspid Valve

a large valve with three cusps which lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Papillary Muscles

small mounds of cardiac muscle tissue.

Pulmonary Valve

a valve with three cusps.

Bicuspid Valve

a valve through which blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

Aorta

the exit of the heart and a large artery.

Aortic Valve

the base of the aorta which has three cusps

Coronary Arteries

the first two branches of the aorta

Cardiac Veins

veins of the heart whose paths roughly arallel to those of the coronary arteries which drain blood that has passed through myocardial capillaries

Coronary Sinus

an enlarged vein on the hearts posterior surface which empties into the right atrium

Cardiac Cycle

the actions which take place in the heart in a cycle

Functional Syncytium

a mass of merging cells that funtion as a unit

Cardiac Conduction

clumps and strands of specialized cardiac muscle tissue whose fibers contain only a few fibrils.

Sinoatrial Node

a key portion of the cardiac conduction which is a small elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epeicardium

pacemaker

a machine used to generate the heart's rhythmic contractions

Atrioventricular Node

a mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue

Electrocardiogram

a recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle

Arteriole

thinner tubes within the arteries

Vasoconstriction

the reuction of the diameter of the blood vessel

Capillary

the smallest diameter blood vessels

Venule

microscopic vessels that continue from the capillaries and merge to form veins

Systole

contracting ventricles which squeeze blood out and into the pulmonary trunk and aorta

Disatole

the arterial pressure drops

Cardiac Output

the volume discharged from the left ventricle per minute

Pulmonary Circut

consists of vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

Systemic Circut

carries blood from the heart to all other parts of the body and back again.

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