The evolution of features that make a group of organisms better suited to live and reproduce in their environment.
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
Smallest unit of most compounds held together by covalent bonds
Main energy carrying molecule in organisms; releases energy when its phosphate bonds are broken
adenine diphosphate. nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups; formed by the removal of one phosphate from an ATP molecule.
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Chromosomes 1-22.
The pair of chromosomes (#23) responsible for determining the sex of an individual. (X & Y)
An organism that uses the sun (photosynthesis) to make food without eating other organisms.
An organism that obtains food molecules by eating other organisms.
The entire portion of Earth that is inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's communities and ecosystems.
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; major source of energy for the human body; usually ends in -ose
The outer membrane of the cell; the plasma membrane. Regulates what comes in or out of the cell.
A protective layer outside the cell membrane in plant cells; is usually formed of cellulose.
process where sugar (Glucose) is broken down in the presence of oxygen into CO2, H2O and ATP. Equation = C6H12O6 + O2 H2O + CO2
chemical compound made out of sugar; forms tangled fibers in the cell walls of many plants and provides structure and support
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; absorbs all colors and reflects green wavelengths
An organelle found only in plants that absorbs sunlight to drive the process of photosynthesis
humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs); having more or less than 46 chromosomes is a mutation. 47 chromosomes (trisomy 21) = Down's Syndrome
(how many humans have, etc.)
community of plants and animals which, through the process of ecological succession has reached a steady state. Highest point of growth in a community.
assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
an experiment that has only one thing changed - the independent variable - between the control group and the experimental group. All other things remain constant
The movement of particles down its concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell; makes the cell shrivel
describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell; makes the cell swell
mixture of two substances where the concentration is even throughout; has 2 parts - solute (dissolved) and solvent (always water)
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. Made through the process of mitosis.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (1n). Made through the process of meiosis
The condition of having three copies of a given chromosome in each homologue rather than the normal number of two. Trisomy 21 = Down's Syndrome
The condition of having one copy of a given chromosome in each homologue rather than the normal number of two.
deoxyribonucleic acid; double-stranded, nucleic acid in the shape of a double helix consisting a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Eventually codes for proteins
ribonucleic acid; single stranded, nucleic acid consisting a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); functions in protein synthesis
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype any time a gene is present; represented by a capital letter
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organisms phenotype; represented by a lower case letter.
assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area along with the surrounding nonliving (or abiotic) factors as well
Proteins that serve as catalysts, chemical agents that speed up the rate of chemical reactions. Lowers the activation energy.
An organism whose cells contain a nucleus, membrane-bound organelles and whose DNA is enclosed in the nucleus.
A type of cell lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as manipulated variable. "what is being changed?"
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe and is measured, which may change because of the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable. "what is being measured?"
the death or disappearance of an organism from all or part of its range
The union of haploid gametes (sperm & egg) to produce a diploid zygote.
A six-carbon sugar (C6H12O6); created in photosynthesis.
The area or environment where an organism or ecological community normally lives or occurs
The tendency of an organism or cell to regulate its internal conditions; keeping them at a constant
Similar structures in different organisms that shows evolutionary relationship, though not necessarily similar in function, like the flippers of a seal and the hands of a human.
Homologous Chromosome Pair
Chromosomes come in pairs, called homologous pairs; humans have 23 pairs (total of 46 chromosomes)
Having two of the same alleles for a given trait. AA or aa