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Consciousness

our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives

Circadian rhythm

-cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24hr basis in many biological processes (e.g., hormone release, body temperature)

Biological clock-

the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) of the hypothalamus, triggers our sense of fatigue (via increasing melatonin)

Measuring sleep-

EEG, EOG, EMG

NonREM

-(no eye movements, less dreaming)

Stages

-(cycle through every 90 min.)

Stage 1

-light sleep, may contain hypnagogic imagery,

Stage 2-

sleep spindles, Kcomplexes, theta waves

Stages 3 and 4-

deeper sleep, delta waves

REM (paradoxical sleep)-

stage 5, eye movements, vivid dreaming

REM dreams

-More dreams occur during REM than nonREM

Insomnia -

difficulty falling and staying asleep

Restless leg syndrome-

urge to move one¬タルs legs or other body parts while attempting to sleep

Narcolepsy -

rapid and unexpected onset of sleep

Sleep apnea-

blockage of airway during sleep

Night Terrors -

during Stages 3 and 4, sudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a return to a deep sleep

Sleepwalking -

usually occurs during nonREM sleep (not dreaming)

Freud¬タルs

wish fulfillment and dream protection theory- dreams transform our sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols that represent wish fulfillment and require interpretation¬タᄄ

Activationsynthesis theory-

dreams reflect brain activation originating in the pons, followed by efforts of the forebrain to weave these inputs into a story

Acetylcholine-

turns on REM sleep

The forebrain-

plays an important role in dreaming

Outofbody experience (OBE)-

sense of consciousness leaving one¬タルs body;May be related to ability to fantasize and to become extraordinarily absorbed in experiences

Neardeath experience (NDE)

OBE reported by people who have nearly died or thought they were going to die

NDElike experiences can be triggered -

by stimulating the temporal lobes, lack of oxygen to the brain, and psychedelic and anesthetic drugs

Dᅢᄅjᅢᅠ vu-

feeling of reliving an experience that is new

Meditation -

feeling of reliving an experience that is new

Hypnosis-

set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

Sociocognitive Theory-

approach to explaining hypnosis based on people¬タルs beliefs and expectations¬タᄄ

Dissociation model-

approach to explaining hypnosis based on separation of the parts of the personality responsible for planning from the part that controls memories (dissociation from consciousness)

Depressants-

decrease nervous system activity

Alcohol-

most widely used and abused drug

Tolerance -

reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use, requires greater quantities to achieve the same effect

Delirium tremens (DTs) -

disorientation, confusion, visual hallucinations, memory problems resulting from alcohol withdrawal, may be fatal without proper disorientation, confusion, visual hallucinations, memory problems resulting from alcohol withdrawal, may be fatal without prop

Alcohol hallucinosis -

auditory hallucinations, sometimes with paranoid beliefs, resulting from alcohol withdrawal

Stimulants -

Increase heart rate, respiration, blood pressure

Tobacco -nicotine;

activates acetylcholine receptors

Cocaine-

one of the most powerful reinforcers

Heroin-

similar action to morphine, but much more powerful

Marijuana-

activates cannabinoid receptors

LSD-

changes in sensation and perception, paranoia, panic

Mystical experiences-

sense of unity with world

Learning-c

hange in an organism¬タルs behavior or thought as a result of experience

Sensitization-

hange in an organism¬タルs behavior or thought as a result of experience

British associationists-

believed that we acquire virtually all of our knowledge by connecting one stimulus with another (e.g., mother¬タルs face and voice)¬タᄄ

Ivan Pavlov-

studied digestion in dogs, noted associative conditioning between neutral stimuli and meat powder (Pavlovian conditioning)

UCS unconditioned stimulus-

biologically significant stimulus that produces automatic response

UCR unconditioned response-

automatic response to a UCS that occurs without learning

CS conditioned stimulus -

initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning

CR conditioned response-

learned response

Aversive conditioning -

classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS

Psychopathic personalities -

indifferent to signals of threat

Habituation

process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli

.Acquisition

learning phase during which a CR is established

.Extinction

gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS

Spontaneous recovery

sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay

Renewal effect -

tendency of an extinguished CR to return when revisiting the original conditioning environment

Phobias

intense and irrational fears

Stimulus generalization

elicitation of a CR to stimuli that are highly similar to, but not identical to, the CS

Generalization gradient

the more similar to the original CS the new CS is, the stronger will be the CR

Stimulus discrimination

opposite of stimulus generalization; occurs when we exhibit a CR to certain CSs, but not others

Higher-order conditioning

process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to CSs associated with the original CS

Second-order conditioning

(e.g., thirst when hear "Coke" on a hot day)

Occasion setters:

setting in which CS occurs

Advertising

pairing positive USs with product CSs

Latent inhibition

when we've experienced a CS alone many times, it's difficult to classically condition it to another stimulus (e.g., highly known vs. novel brands)

Watson & Reyner (1920)

sought to disprove the Freudian view of phobia, reflecting deep-seated unconscious conflict

Fetishism

experiencing sexual attraction to nonliving things

Disgust reactions

in most cases, a product of classical conditioning because CSs associated with disgusting UCSs come to elicit disgust themselves

McConnell (1955)

gave light-shock (CS-UCS) pairings to planaria flatworms

Instrumental conditioning

acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome or consequence of those behaviors

Positive reinforcement

pleasant stimulus is given to increase the probability of a response (e.g., cell phone for good grades)

Negative reinforcement

unpleasant stimulus is removed to increase the probability of a response (e.g., Aidan's mother's nagging stops when he picks up his room)

Punishment

unpleasant stimulus is given, or pleasant stimulus is taken away, to decrease the probability of a response (e.g., cell phone taken away for breaking curfew)

Discriminant stimulus

stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement (e.g., whistle for dog, gets treat when approaches)

Partial reinforcement

behaviors that we reinforce only occasionally are slower to extinguish than those we reinforce continuously

Schedules of reinforcement

pattern of reinforcing a behavior

Fixed Ratio

after regular number of responses

Variable Ratio

after specific number of responses, on average

Fixed Interval

after specific amount of time

Variable Interval

after an average time interval

Shaping by successive reinforcement

reinforcing behaviors that aren't quite the target behavior but that are progressively closer versions of it

Chaining

linking a number of interrelated behaviors to form a longer series

Premack principle

a less frequently performed behavior can be increased by reinforcing it with a more frequent behavior

Superstitious behavior

behavior linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence (e.g., lucky charm effect)

Token economies

mental hospital staff can reinforce patients who behave in a desired fashion using tokens, chips, points, or other secondary reinforcers

Secondary reinforcers

neutral objects that patients can later trade in for...

Primary reinforcers

items or outcomes that are naturally pleasurable, such as a favorite food or drink

ABA

a set of techniques, pioneered by Ivar Lovaas at UCLA, and based on operant conditioning principles, that relies on the careful measuremenf behavior before and after implementing interventions

Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theorists

focus on how the organism interprets the stimulus before generating a response

Latent learning

arning that isn't directly observable; we learn many things without showing them

What Emphasizes the difference between competence (what we know) and performance (showing what we know)

latent learning

Observational learning

earning by watching others (models), without instruction or reinforcement

Insight learning

when subjects suddenly "get" the solution to a problem, and from there on get it right almost every time

Conditioned taste aversion

classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food

Preparedness

regarding phobias suggests that we're evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others

instinctive drift

Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement:

Sleep-assisted learning

listening to audio tapes while you sleep

Discovery learning

giving students experimental materials and asking them to figure out scientific principles on their own

Memory is reconstructive

we extract the gist to make things easier to remember (but this may contribute to memory errors)

Sensory memory

very brief storage of perceptual information; each sense has its own form

Iconic

(visual)

echoic

(auditory)

Short-term memory

limited duration (< 20 seconds) and capacity (the magic number = 7 ± 2 pieces of information)

proactive inhibition

old info interferes with acquisition of new info

Chunking

organizing info into meaningful groupings to extend the span of STM beyond 7 ± 2

Rehearsal

repeating info to extend the duration of STM

Maintenance rehearsal

repeating stimuli in the original form (e.g., repeating phone number long enough to dial it)

Elaborative rehearsal

linking stimuli in a meaningful way

Levels-of-processing model

the more deeply we transform info, the better we remember it

Long-term memory

permanent store of information

LTM

capacity is very large;may endure for decades

Primacy effect

tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those later in the list

Recency effect -

endency to remember words at the end of a list better than those earlier in the list

von Restorff effect

tendency to remember distinctive stimuli

Explicit (or declarative) memory

accessible to conscious awareness, can be stated "declaratively"

Implicit memory

not deliberately remembered ("automatic"), doesn't require conscious effort, many different forms

Procedural memory

motor skills and habits, "know how" memory

Priming

facilitated recognition of a stimulus after seeing it, or a similar stimulus, previously

Classical conditioning

associative conditioning between neutral and innately meaningful stimuli

Habituation

decrease in attention to familiar stimuli over time

Encoding

getting information into memory

Storage

keeping information in memory

Retrieval

reactivation or reconstruction of information from memory

Mnemonics

learning aid that enhances recall;Pegword method (uses rhyming)

Schemas

organized knowledge structure, or mental model, that provides a frame of reference for interpreting new situations

Recall

generating previously remembered information

Recognition -

selecting previously remembered information from an array of options

Relearning-

"savings"; how much more quickly we reacquire something learned before

Encoding specificity

we're more likely to remember something when the conditions present at encoding are similar to those at retrieval

Context-dependent learning

external context

State-dependent learning

internal state

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

strengthening of connections among neurons due to simultaneous stimulation (firing together, wiring together)

Retrograde amnesia

loss of past memories before onset of amnesia

Anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories since onset of amnesia

H.M.

severe epilepsy, medial part of temporal lobes removed, including hippocampi

Clive Wearing

hippocampi destroyed by virus

amygdala

is responsible for the storage of emotional components of memory, especially fear memories

Dementia

overall cognitive decline, including severe memory and language los

Infantile Amnesia

We are unable to recall personal experiences that took place before about 3 to 5 years of age

Flashbulb memories

very vivid, able to be recalled in detail

Source monitoring

ability to identify the origins of a memory

Cryptomnesia

failure to recognize that one's idea actually originated with someone else

Misinformation Effect

creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information afterward

Schacter's Seven Sins of Memory

Suggestibility,Misattribution,Bias,Transience,Persistence,Blocking,Absentmindedness

Research on age-regression and past life regression therapeutic techniques suggests that

they say more about the patient's beliefs than about any true healing properties.

What relatively rare sleep disorder involves people acting out the movements and events of their dreams?

REM behavior disorder

During public performances, hypnotists attempt to show that hypnosis is "real" by demonstrating its special powers. However, what most audience members fail to realize is that many of the phenomena can occur without receiving hypnotic suggestion. In these presentations, the hypnotists are most like

magicians and illusionists.

Which of the following concepts most strongly challenges the conventional belief that one is either entirely awake and consciously aware or asleep and not consciously aware?

Lucid dreaming

What theory of hypnosis posits that individuals who are highly suggestible are simply responding to cues from the hypnotist rather than truly entering an altered state of consciousness?

Sociocognitive theory

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