exploers questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world application
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
a process or selecting individuals from a population in such a way that the subgroups in the population are represented in the sample, the population is divided into subpopulations and random samples are taken of each stratum.
confounding variables-participant and situation-relevant
any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
a committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology