TAKS Vocabulary Review - Mod 12

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10th Grade Social Studies TAKS

Sub-Saharan Africa .

The land south of the Sahara Desert in Africa that includes some of the world's richest mineral deposits and fertile land.

Straits of Hormuz

A narrow body of water linking the Persian Gulf with the Gulf of Oman causing a choke point.

1215

The year the Magna Carta, the cornerstone of English justice and law was signed

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who create and can alter or abolish government.

Separation of Powers .

Organization of government whichinto three branches - legislative, executive and judicial; proposed by Montesquieu

Nullification Crisis

prelude to the Civil War. South Carolina believed a State had the power to override the Federal (National) Government

Renaissance

Rebirth of ideas, art, and architecture of the Greeks and Romans

Civil War

U.S. was divided over the issues of states rights and slavery

Latitude

flat - horizontal lines on a map

Longitude

up and down - vertical lines on a map

Humanism

Renaissance Value that humans are important. It shifted the focus from the after life (religion) to a person's life on earth

Migration

movement of people from on country or location to another

Printing Press

Machine that allowed text to be mass produced which allowed the spreading of ideas

Barriers

Thes slow down movement/migration

Natural Barriers

mountains, deserts and oceans

Diffusion/spatial exchange (cultural diffusion)

the spread of ideas, people and places to new places

International Trade

exchange of goods and ideas (commerce) between the new nations and different parts of the world expanded

States Rights

issue of the Civil War. South believed the States had more power than the Federal Government

Canals

artificial waterway for navigation, irrigation

Straits

a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water

Protestant Reformation

movement that began to correct problem in the Roman Catholic Church. It caused a split and the development of Protestant Churches

Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States during the Civil War

Emancipation Proclamation

Statement made by Abraham Lincoln which essentially freed the slaves

Panama Canal

water way through Panama that shortens the distance by water from East coast of the US to the West Coast

95 Theses

Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation

Suez Canal

water way through Egypt that connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea

Indulgences

pardon for sin. Martin Luther questioned the churches authority to pardon sin and especially the idea that you could buy the pardon

Secularism

belief in worldly rather than spiritual ideas

Irrigation Canals

technology used by early farmers to get water to the crops

Schism

split in the church

The Senate

Part of the Legislative Branch whose job is to makes the Laws

Subsistence agriculture

having just enough food to survive with very little left over

Scientific Revolution

surge in scientific discovery in Europe

Mesoamerica civilizations

developed complex societies such as Maya and Aztec

Traditional economy

basic economy that was used in early farming and hunting and gathering societies

Age of Exploration & Colonization

Europeans explored and conquered much of the world. Goal was to find trade route to Asia

Andean civilization

developed complex societies such as the Inca

Cottage industry

making goods out of the home

Imperialism

strong nations seek to dominate other countries (territories) politically, economically, or socially

Industrial Revolution

shift from agriculture to industry (commercial industry) mass production of goods. It also led to the growth of cities and global trade

Bartering

trading goods or services for other goods or services

Columbian Exchange

transfer of plants, animals, disease, and cultures between Europe, Asia and Africa (Old World) and North and South America (New World). It started with Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492

Commercial Agriculture

mass production of food

Famine

extreme hunger and scarcity of food

Subsistence economy

similar to traditional economy and associated with subsistence agriculture

Factory System

the production of goods in a factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers

Standard of living

quality of life, such as housing, health, education

Atlantic Slave Trade

millions of Africans were enslaved and transported across the Atlantic Ocean to work on plantations in the Americas and Caribbean region

Communism/Command Economy

an economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally

Magnetic Compass

Chinese invention that helped make sea travel across the Atlantic Ocean possible

Absolute Monarchy

king/queen who has unlimited power

Capitalism/Market Economy

an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit (money)

Enlightenment

18th century European movement that applied reason to all aspects of society and help changed government

John Locke

Proposed the ideas of natural rights - life liberty, property

Cuneiform

writing system in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia

Karl Marx

economic thinker that developed communism

ziggurats

Temples in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia

Montesquieu

Proposed that a government should have 3 branches

Adam Smith

economic thinker that supported capitalism

Fertile Crescent

early river valley civilization located in modern day Iraq on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Natural Rights / Individual Rights

Life, Liberty, property or Life, Liberty, the Pursuit of Happiness

Cotton Gin

invented by Eli Whitney it removed the seeds from cotton quicker than by hand which helped increase production

Henry Ford

He created the first assembly line used for manufacturing of automobiles

Urban

This is also referred to as a city

Hammurabi

Mesopotamian king who created the first written law code

Glorious/Bloodless Revolution

England's overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a constitutional monarchy (representative government)

English Bill of Rights

guaranteed/protected basic rights of the English citizens and foundation for US Bill of Rights

Silk Road

trade route that went from China to the Middle East and into Europe - called the Silk Road b/c of the Silk only coming from China

Constitutional Monarchy

rulers power is limited by law - Great Britain's current form of government since Glorious Revolution

Industrialized

having industries for the machine production of goods

Labor force

people in a society that are willing and able to work

Representative democracy

citizens vote for representatives who make and enforce the laws. US form of government

Demographics

statistical data of a population like - GDP per capita, Life Expectance, Literacy Rate, Infant mortality, ethnicity, religion etc

Founding of Jamestown

1607 first colony in America. Established representative government based on the British system of government

Literacy Rate

percent of people in a country that can read and write

Infant Mortality

average number of children that die by the age of 5

Life Expectancy

average number of years people live

Per Capita Income

average income per person

Theocracy

government where the religious leader run the government

Monotheism

belief in one god

Polytheism

belief in many gods

Declaration of Independence

sent to Britain (George III) with the grievances the Colonist had with England and why they were going to become their own Nation

Thomas Jefferson

He wrote the Declaration of Independence, was the 3rd president of the U.S.A. and made the Louisiana purchase

Oligarchy

government ruled by a few powerful people

George Washington

He was commander of the Continental Army, defeated Cornwallis at the Battle Yorktown, and 1st president of the U.S. A.

Articles of Confederation

US first plan of government that failed because of the weak central (national) government

Federalist

supporters of the Constitution. They favored a strong national government.

Nationalism

pride in ones country

Federalist Papers

Articles published to get support for the Constitution.

Self Determination

right of groups of people to create their own nation

Direct Democracy

government where citizens vote directly on laws - ex: Athens

Anti-Federalist

opposed to the Constitution because it gave too much power to the national government and not enough to the states. They also wanted individual rights protected

Republic

government were citizens elect representatives ex: Rome Greece

Draco

Greek reformer who wrote a harch law code

Totalitarianism

A form of government that controls every aspect of public and private life. EX: Hitler in Germany

1791

Year that the first 10 amendments to the Constitution were made which protected the rights of individuals from abuses of the national government

Justinian

Emporer of the Byzantine Empire who wrote a law code

Middle Ages

period in Europe that began after the fall of the Roman Empire Characterized by feudalism, Roman Catholic Church was the unifier of the age with more power than Kings/Lords

Federalism

division of power between the national (federal) and state governments - ex.: national gov't coins money and the state gov't cannot

1066

Battle of Hastings - centralized government

Limited Government

restrictions on the powers the government has like states cannot create money

Iron Curtain

Term used to describe the division between Western (democratic) Europe and Eastern (communist) Europe

Republicanism

The form of government where people elect representatives the create and enforce laws

Crusaders

Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled

Checks and Balances

each branch of government has a way to restrict/check the actions of the other 2 branches

Cathedrals

Gothic Architecture used to show religious spirit during the Middle Ages

Magna Carta

law code signed by King John of England that limited his power and was the first time for limited government

Bubonic Plague

disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism

Inalienable/Unalienable

Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness same as natural or individual rights

Winston Churchill

Leader of Great Britain in WWII who coined the phrase Iron Curtain

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