the belief that stressed God's free gift to grace and discounted individual and societal efforts to gain salvation through good works
the first permanent English colony in North America, established by the joint-stock Virginia Company of London in Virginia in 1607
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Dubbed "the Navigator" for his commitment to seafaring, this Portuguese prince encouraged improvements in navigation, map making, and ship design. He financed voyages of exploration along the African coast and to China in the 16th century.
a colony given as a grant to a prominent Englishman or group of Englishmen who then theoretically exercised total control in the colony
the determination of family membership and political and property rights through the female (mother's) line.
King William's War
the first of wars for empire fought between the English and French
errand into the wilderness
Puritan's sensed that their mission was to go the New England to establish pure Christian communities with the ultimate purpose of reforming English society and the Church of England. aka "the New England way"
the Puritan minister who argued that church and state should be seperated, that Puritans should be seperate from the Church of England, and that Puritans had illegally intruded on Indian land.
When his views got him banished from Massachusetts Bay, he established Rhode Island.
the Norse explorer often credited with being the first European to arrive in the Western Hemisphere. He apparently established short-lived settelments in Newfoundland
a decentralized political and economic system consisting of hierarchial relationships based on property and service.
Peace of Utrecht
treaty ending Queen Anne's War, which awarded England Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay; France St. Kitts and Nevis
the belief in a spirit power dwelling throughout nature
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
Navigational principles used by Portuguese explorers in the fifteenth century; included the concept of the round earth, distances on its surfaces can be measured in degrees, and that navigators can "fix" their position of the stars
one of the two Englishmen who advertised the advantages of England's colonizing in North America
Religious separatists who came to New England on the Mayflower in 1620 and established Plymouth colony in an effort to live a pure, primitive, and godly life apart from the corruption of Europe and the Church of England
the takeover of the New York colonial government by Jacob Leisler and his followers, primarily members of the middle and lower classes, following the Glorious Revolution in England. The rebellion reflected class antipathy.
German immigrant, merchant, leader of New York dissidents, his militia captured the fort and he became the new head of the goverment in New York, William and Mary appointed a new governor and forced him out, later hanged for treason
(1688) Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II, replacing him with the Dutch born William III and Mary, daughter of James II; William and Mary accepted increased Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority
Leader of the Puritans who became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company in its effort to found a Puritan utopia in New England
Rene de Robert La Salle
French explorer who canoed down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico in the 1680s and planted a settlement at Matagorda Bay in Texas
King Philip's War
the New England conflict between Wampanoag Amerindians, who were seeking to revitalize their culture, and land-hungry whites.
the traditional belief that people were bound together by mutual rights, obligations, and duties which Puritans felt was essential to the notion of community
Sir William Berkeley
the royal governor of Virginia whose policies favored the colonial elite and thus angered frontiersmen, leading to Bacon's Rebellion
the process of domesticating plant life for food which occurred worldwide from 7000 to 9000 years ago, resulting in sedentary living, the division of labor, regional trading, and greater sociopolitical complexity
Covenant of Grace
the Puritan belief that an individual could be saved only as a result of God's will and that His will was determined before the individual was born
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by a higher power
the radical religious sect who discarded the ideas of original sin and eternal predestination, and, instead, preached that all believers could find grace through the "inward light", a spark of redemption that existed in every human being. They also believed in the spiritual equality of both sexes and they renounced the use of force in human affairs.
a sin inherited by all descendants of Adam
Lords of Trade
A committee of the king's privy council vested with the power to make an enforce decisions regarding the management of the colonies.
A body of some thirty to forty advisers appointed by and responsible solely to the king. The Privy Council became the first agency of colonial supervision.
the emphasis on work as a "calling", or a primary means of serving God, that had the effect of banishing idleness and imparting discipline in Puritan communities
Yearly meeting of citizens of New England villages which selected village officials and settles village business; an early version of democratic local self-government in America
A process of combining landed estates by the English landed class in the 16th century in order to practice more intensive and profitable agriculture.
It resulted in the displacement of many peasant, who were thus available to immigrate to the colonies
a Prominent Quaker who founded Pennsylvania for people of all religions and nations based on toleration, representative government, and peaceful relations with Amerindians
the Spanish conquerors of the native peoples of America that campaigned for Gospel, Gold, and Glory
an individual with both black and white ancestors. the large number of this in the colonial population suggests the frequency of interracial liaisons
the policy of continuous suspicion and hostility between Amerindians and colonists which developed after the 1622 Amerindian attack on Jamestown
An Italian explorer of the late 13th - early 14th centuries who was one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia. His travels' accounts stimulated interest in trade with the Orient
the cornerstone of English law and justice, forced on the English king by the aristocracy that eventually led to the regular meeting of a parliament
Spanish Armada, 1588
Spain dispatched its naval fleet to return England to the Catholic church. The English defeated it.
-brought a stalemate to the religious wars in Europe and opened the doors to English colonization in the New World
the leader of the first trans-Atlantic voyage since the Vikings that established England's claim to territory in the New World
A social condition in which people of different national origins and religious persuasions live under the same government
Salem witchcraft trials
a series of trials, involving suspected witches, which was the culmination of social conflict and anxiety over changed in the community and which resulted in the execution of 20 accused witches
small, flimsy cabins and houses built directly on the ground that were the common form of housing in the Chesapeake Bay area in 17th century
a 16th century movement to cleanse the Roman Catholic church of corrupt practices and return to the purer days of early Christianity.
the identification of slave status, the lowest social status, with those with black skin; thus, the use of race to determine social status
the inflationary effect on the European economy during the 1500s that resulted from the enormous influx of silver from Spanish America.
-stimulate commercial development
Treaty of Tordesillas
the treaty that moved the demarcation line set by the pope in 1493 to divide Spanish and Portuguese sphere of exploration 270 leagues west, thus including Brazil
one of the founders and proprietors of Maryland that intended to establish the land a refuge for Catholics as a feudal state in the wilderness
a community that believed it had a collective mission to serve God, that united church and state affairs, and that placed the interests of the community above those of the individual
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Confederation of New England
the intercolonial political organization to coordinate government and to provide greater defense against enemies