bio exam 4: 3 (ch8)

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telophase

opposite of prophase in terms of nuclear changes

gametes

production of ______ in diploid cells is a function of mitosis in humans

cleavage

cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. this chemical would interfere with _______

interphase

it's hard to observe the individual chromosomes during ______ because

inversion

if a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an _________

fatal

extra copies of chromosomes aside from 21 are probably _______

cell division

a cell undergoes reproduction, and 2 genetically identical daughter cells result during _____ _______

chromosomes

structures that contain most of the cell's DNA

asexual reproduction

the creation of genetically identical offspring by a SINGLE parent, without the participation of sperm&egg

sexual reproduction

fertilization of an egg by a sperm

binary fission

cell division where they divide in half

single parent

binary fission is classified as asexual reproduction because the genetically identical offspring inherit their DNA from a ....

reproduction

in an amoeba, cell division plays the role of ______

development, growth, and repair

in the human body, cell division plays the role of....

chromatin

fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA & protein molecules. too thin to see with a light microscope

centromere

the ______ is visible near the center of each chromosome

chromatids

a chromosome consists of 2 identical ________ when the cell is preparing to divide and has duplicated its chromosomes, but before the duplicates actually separate

interphase

during _______ a cell's metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs its various functions within the organism

mitotic phase

during the ______ phase, a cell actually divides

only accounts for about 10% of the total time required for the cell cycle

mitosis

during _______ the nucleus and its contents (most importantly duplicated chromosomes) divide and are evenly distribute, forming 2 daughter nuclei

cytokinesis

during _________ the cytoplasm is divided in 2

mitosis

prophase
prometaphase
anaphase
metaphase &
telophase

are the 5 main stages of _________

mitotic spindle

football-shaped structure of microtubules that guides the separation of the 2 sets of daughter chromosomes

centrosomes

clouds of cytoplasmic material that contains pairs of centrioles in animal cells

(spindle microtubules emerge from these)

interphase

during ______ the cell synthesizes new molecules and organelles

prophase

during ______ changes occur in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

within the nucleus, the chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and folded

prometaphase

nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears

metaphase

during ______ the mitotic spindle is fully formed, with its poles at opposite ends of the cell

anaphase

________ begins when the 2 centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids.

once separated, each sister chromatid is considered a full-fledged daughter chromosome

telophase

during _______, the cell elongation that started in anaphase continues, and mitosis is eventually finished

cytokinesis

the division of the cytoplasm -- usually occurs along with telophase--

with 2 daughter cellscompletely separating soon after the end of mitosis

cytokinesis

during _________ in animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms and the cell pinches into 2

cleavage furrow

a shallow indentation in the cell surface

microfilaments

at the site of a cleavage furrow, the cytoplasm has a ring of _________ made of actin

cell plate

membranous disk formed when vesicles fuse

growth factor

a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

density-dependent inhibition

crowded cells stop dividing during this

cell division

scientists have discovered at least 50 different growth factors that can trigger....

anchorage dependence

animal cells must be in contact with a solid surface (like a culture dish/extracellular tissue matrix) to divide

cell cycle control system

a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle

tumor

abnormally growing mass of body cells

benign tumor

if abnormal cells remain at the original site

malignant tumors

these can spread into neighboring tissues and other body parts, displacing normal tissue and interrupting organ function

metastasis

spread of cancer cells beyond their original site

carcinomas

cancers that originate in the external/internal coverings of the body (like skin/intestine lining)

sarcomas

arise in tissues that support the body, such as bone & muscle

leukemias/lymphomas

cancers of blood-forming tissues (like bone marrow/spleen/lymph nodes)

somatic cell

typical body cell in humans with 46 chromosomes

autosomes

22 remaining pairs of chromosomes found in males & females

life cycle

sequence of stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next

diploid

cells with two sets of homologous chromosomes.


humans & most other animals, and many plants are _____ organisms

gametes

egg&sperm cells are collectively known as ____

haploid

cell with a single chromosome set is a ____ cell-- only 1 member of each homologous pair

zygote

fertilized egg

homologous

if you are female, all your chromosomes are fully _______.not so with guys (X & Y)

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chiasma

where 2 homologous (nonsister) chromatids are attached to each other

genetic recombination

production of gene combinations different from those carried by the original parental chromosomes

karyotype

magnified images of someone's chromosomes arranged in pairs

nondisjunction

when members of a chromosome pair fail to separate

survival

abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes don't usually affect _________

polypoid organism

organism with more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes in its body cells (ex: tree frog)

deletion

when a fragment of a chromosome is lost

duplication

when a fragment from 1 chromosome joins to a sister chromatid or homologous chromosome

inversion

when a fragment of a chromosome reattaches to the original one, but in reverse

translocation

attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a non-homologous chromosome

gametes

______ have a single set of chromosomes

23

humans have ____pairs of homologous chromosomes

mitosis

this provides for..

growth
cell replacement &
asexual reproduction

growth factors

signal the cell cycle control system

cell division

this is affected by anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors

cytokinesis

this differs for plant and animal cells

multiplies

the cell cycle _____ cells

prokaryotes

_______ reproduce by binary fission

asexually

prokaryotic cells reproduce ______ by cell division

number

accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome _______

reduces

meiosis _____ chromosome number from diploid to haploid

genes

homologous chromosomes may carry different versions of the genes

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