Ch 10: Contemporary Task-Oriented Approaches to Motor Control Training

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Contemporary Task-Oriented Approaches to Motor Control Training

• Based on current research of the motor behavior.
• Rejects reflex-hierarchical model of motor control and traditional neurphisology therapies.
• Environmental/task performance systems model of motor control

Main principles of Carr and Shepard's Motor Relearning Program (MRP)

• person is an active participant whose goal is to relearn effective strategies
• does not follow a developmental sequence
• successful task relearning occurs when performance is automatically and efficiently
• compensatory strategies limit recovery & focuses on learning general strategies for motor problems

Task-oriented approach to motor control training

- Practicing goal-directed, functional tasks; no focus on underlying impairments
- Task performance emerges from interaction of multiple systems including personal and performance contexts.
- Individual must practice w/varied strategies to find optimal solutions to motor problems
- Th. must determine which control parameters or systems (personal, environ, etc.) + or - influences on motor behavior.

Principles of Motor Learning:

• Contemporary approaches to treating motor dysfunction incorporate principles of motor learning during interventions focused on remediating motor control in persons with CNS dysfunction.
• Ultimate goal of utilizing motor learning theory: Acquisition of functional skills that can be generalized to multiple situations and environments

Skill acquisition (cognitive stage)

occurs at initial instruction and practice of a skill.

Skill retention (associated stage)

involves "carry over", as individuals are asked to demonstrated their newly acquired skill after initial practice.

Skill transfer (autonomous stage) involves

the individual demonstrating the skill in a new context.

Random practice

involves practice of several tasks that are presented in a random order encouraging reformulation of the solution to pre presented motor problem.

Blocked practice

involves repeated performance of the same motor skill.

Variable conditions

involve practice skills in various contexts to improve transfer of learning and retention skills.

Cognitive stage of motor learning:

"what to do" - demonstrate ideal performance and focus on errors as they become consistent. Point out similarities to other learned tasks and have patient to verbalized and visualized task.

Associated stage of motor learning:

"how to do" decisions - use less guided movements
- use variable feedback - continue to provide knowledge of performance

Autonomous stage of motor learning:

"how to succeed" decision - self-evaluation and provide occasional feedback when errors are evident
- vary environment to challenge learner and increase competitiveness

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