Music History Study Guide
|Pope Gregory "The Great"|| 600 AD|
- Created a system to explain musical scales; gave notes names . . . A,B,C . . .
- Gregorian Chant
|Guido of Arezzo||Devised sensing do,re,mi,fa,so,la,ti,do... also developed a new music notation system using a staff.|
|Catholic Mass||Mass consisted of great choral and orchestral works.|
|Giovanni da Palestrina|| 1525-1594, Renaissance.|
Wrote songs for voices along to be sung in unison, A capella.
|Madrigal||A piece for at least 3 voices usually without accompaniment.|
|Claudio Monteverdi|| 1567-1643, Renaissance. |
One of the inventors of opera.
|Baroque||Mid 1600's- mid 1700's, highly emotional.|
|Antonio Vivaldi|| 1678-1741, Baroque, Italian.|
-"The Red Priest" named for his red hair.
-Taught violin at the Mercy Hospital for young female orphans.
-Wrote Four Seasons.
|George Frideric Handel|| 1685-1759, Baroque, German.|
- Studied in Italy, composed in England.
- Wrote Messiah, an oratorios of solo singers, chorus and orchestra.
-Wrote Water Music to perform on the barge as Kind George floated up the Thames River.
|Johann Sebastian Bach|| 1685-1750, Baroque, German.|
- Organist...wrote at least 215 cantatas for the church.
- Used counterpoint which is 2,3, or 4 melodic lines played at the same time.
|Classical Period||mid 1700's- mid 1800's|
|Joseph Haydn|| 1732-1809, Classical Period, Austrian.|
- Court Musician and for 30 years served Prince Esterhazy where he was able to standardize structures of symphony and string quartet, earning him the name 'Father of Symphony'.
|Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|| 1756-1791, Classical Period, Austrian.|
- Child prodigy; composed by the age of 4; toured as a child.
-Wrotte the opera Don Giovani.
-Studied under Papa Haydn.
|Ludwig can Beethoven|| 1770-1827, Classical Period, German.|
- Studied under Haydn
-wrote Eroica (Meaning heroic), a symphony evoking the life of a hero; originally inspired by Napoleon Bonaparte until he proclaimed himself emperor which made the composer fly into a rage.
|Franz Schubert|| 1797-1828, Classical Period, Austrian.|
- Wrote Lieder, which are songs to be sung by one voice accompanied by piano.
|Felix Mendelssohn|| 1809-1847, Classical Period.|
- Rediscovered Bach
- Wrote music for Shakespeare's Midsummer's Night Dream
|Romantic era|| 1800's|
Inspired by nature, feeling, emotion and nursing one's inner child.
|Carl Maria von Weber|| 1786-1826, Romantic era.|
- 1st conductor to draw up a standard seating chart for orchestra.
|Frederic Chopin|| 1810-1849, Romantic era, Polish.|
-changed what was possible on the piano
|Robert Schuman|| 1810-1856, Romantic era, German.|
- Wrote mostly piano pieces
- Marries Clara, also a talented pianist.
- Went Insane.
|Johannes Brahms|| 1833-1897, Romantic Era, German.|
- Grew up playing in taverns and brothels.
-Was close friends with Clara Schuman ;)
- Self critical so that he didn't publish his first symphony until he was 43
|Richard Wagner|| 1813-1883, Romantic era, German.|
- Wrote opera and developed in a musical theme for each character.
|Nationalism|| The last part of the 19th century.|
-Composers of each country threw off bonds of convention and asserted the flavors of their own native vountries.
-Music became the symbol of national pride.
|Antonin Dvorak|| 1841-1904, Nationalist, Bohemian.|
- Childhood was filled with country fold music.
- Because of his national pride he reluctantly took over the National Conservatory of Music in NY.