a change in genetic information of cell; by definition causes evolution.
Mutations occur in a gene about ______.
change in 1 or a few nucleotides.
movement of gene on chromosome
point mutation, transposition, chromosome duplication or deletion
3 types of mutations: ____, ____, _____
more then a complete set of chromosomes.
used to produce seedless fruits.
agent that increases rate of mutation.
high energy: x and gamma rays. Knocks electrons off atoms, causing free radicals
very reactive, breaks DNA
______ tans and burns us and is very mutagenic
less energy then ionizing radiation-can't ionize
Cs and Ts
UV is absorbed by single-ringed DNA bases: ___ and ____
UV light causes adjacent Cs and Ts to become _____.
rare disorder where individuals can't repair UV damage; full of skin tumors.
nucleotide look-a-likes that are incorporated into DNA. And chemicals that alter existing DNA nucleotides.
germ or somatic cells
Mutations can occur in ___ or ____.
_____ can cause cancer.
uncontrolled growth of cells.
Many ____ are potent mutagens.
a number of genes (30+) seem to be involved in all cancers=_____.
cell replication process
Most oncogenes are involved in ______.
Some ______ turn on cell replication; some control it.
Some cancer-causing viruses have oncogenes as part of their _____.
Movement of genes from one population to another.
The genetic make-up of a small new group will drift away from its ancestral population if small group does not contain same gene frequencies as ancestral group.
Genetic drift is ______ related to size of population.
Founder effect and bottleneck
2 types of genetic drift commonly observed: ____ and ____.
allele frequency of a small population that becomes isolated is different from original population.
All 12000 Amish living in Pennsylvania descended from group of 30 founders from Switzerland in 1700s. One couple had rare allele for Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome.
Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome
Number of cases in the Amish now exceeds rest of world. Symptoms: short limbs, extra fingers.
population undergoes severe decrease in size. Later population recovers and grows, but retains limited genetic variation.
Believed that cheetahs went through _______ 10,000 years ago during last Ice Age. Have no variation at 47 different loci. Heterozygous at .01% of genes; humans at 10%.