Collagenous and elastic fibers are found in ___ tissue
Muscles are connected to bones by
Which of the following is NOT a basic type of tissue?
Simple squamous epithelium has
a single layer of flat cells.
_________ bone contains numerous bony plates separated by irregular spaces.
Bone cells are located in spaces called _____ between the rings of matrix.
The fluid found between blood cells is called
Which of the following tissues would line the mouth?
Red blood cells are red due to
the red pigment hemoglobin.
Dendrites and an axon are parts of a(n)
What is the function of neuroglial cells?
support and nourish neurons
Which type of tissue will respond to stimuli and transmit impulses?
Nerve fibers are composed of
A "spinal tap" would involve removing fluid from the _____ cavity.
Usually it is not possible to penetrate inside a body cavity without cutting through protective tissues. However, sperm reach the egg via the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes (oviducts). Without crossing any epidermal barrier, the sperm can find itself inside which body cavity?
The type of membrane that covers the heart is called a
Which molecule is responsible for the waterproofing of the skin?
The part of the skin that has adipose tissue to help insulate the body is the
Melanin is a substance responsible for
skin pigmentation to protect from harmful light.
If you wash your skin and hair many times a day, you will soon have dry skin that cracks and bleeds because you have removed the _____ secreted by ______ that is necessary to keep the skin supple.
sebum; sebaceous glands
A __________ disease can be life-threatening, but usually occur quickly and are resolved quickly.
The structure and function of an organ is dependent upon the structure and function of the lower organizational levels such as tissues and cells.
When you look at someone, you are seeing primarily dead cells because cells at the surface of the epidermis are dead.
Sweat glands in the skin help regulate body temperature.
Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?
In humans, the superior vena cava
carries blood to the right atrium.
Systole occurs when
the heart tissue is contracting.
Which statement is NOT a correct association?
veins—contain small portion of overall blood volume
Incomplete closing of the ___ valves will cause heart ___.
The part of the circulation involved with pumping blood to and from the lungs is the
Which blood vessel has the highest concentration of carbon dioxide?
Oxygenated blood enters the heart at the
The blood vessel that provides oxygen to the heart tissue is the
Usually there is only one capillary bed between an artery and vein; an exception to this is the
hepatic portal system which runs from the capillary bed in the intestine to the capillary bed in the liver via a hepatic portal vein.
The outer sac that encloses the heart and provides lubrication is the
Which of the following is NOT a correct association?
ventricles—receive blood from body
"Artery" and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the name(s) of
the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
___________ is (are) a condition in which there are irregular dilations of veins due to breakdown of valves.
Which specific component in hemoglobin combines with oxygen?
iron in the heme
Oxygen is transported in blood most efficiently by
forming a combination with a respiratory pigment, such as hemoglobin.
Aged red blood cells are destroyed in the
spleen and liver.
A person with normal blood volume and white cell count but low red cell count or low hemoglobin content may be suffering from
Neutrophils and lymphocytes are types of
white blood cells.
In the fetal heart, the lungs are deflated and the fetus receives oxygen from its mother across the placenta through the umbilical cord. There is an opening in the wall between the left and right side of the fetal heart. This should normally grow closed before birth. What symptoms would be expected if this heart wall opening remained open?
Deoxygenated blood would mix with oxygenated blood and systemic circulation would have too little oxygen to sustain healthy growth.
There is a condition where a baby is born with an opening [foramen ovale] in the septum or wall between the atria. What are reasonable consequences?
disability when deoxygenated blood is mixed and sent to the body and partly oxygenated blood is sent to the lungs
Any disease-causing agent, either virus or bacteria, is a(n)
Which molecule causes the capillaries to dilate and become more permeable?
In order to decrease the effects of inflammation, you would take what type of medication?
Edema can be caused by
too much tissue fluid production.
Which is NOT part of a description of an antibody molecule?
contains a constant and a variable region on each chain
forms an X-shaped protein molecule
a natural programmed cell death.
The presence of antibodies in a newborn baby is most often due to
passive immunity from the mother.
Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection, that was very similar to more dangerous smallpox, as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. This was a case of these subjects
developing active immunity.
Cancer is more likely to occur in individuals who
have a faulty immune system.
How is a lymph capillary like a blood capillary?
Both have thin walls.
Anaphylactic shock may occur due to
a shot of penicillin.
A person who is blood type AB has
antigens A and B on the surface of RBCs.
Inflammation or the inflammatory response is a harmful process that should be avoided.
When a person is bitten by a venomous snake, a donation of blood plasma from another person who has recently survived the same snake bite would provide some passive immunity.
Tissue fluid that has entered the lymphatic vessels is called
The digestive system does NOT function in the
manufacture of food molecules.
Which of these organs has food for the least time and participates least in digestion?
A correct function of the human stomach is
storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to allow chemical digestion.
The digestive juices found in the stomach include
pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
The ____ functions to store food, kill bacteria, and partially digest proteins
Name the structure and organ that has microvilli, maltase, and absorbs nutrients.
villus, small intestine
In the processing of food through the digestive tract, what is the correct order?
bolus → chyme → feces
Which of the following is not true of the tongue?
The tongue secretes salivary amylase.
Which of the following is responsible for the storage of extra bile?
In Figure 14.1, which structure is the liver?
1 (left top)
In Figure 14.1, the esophagus is designated by the number
3 (tube to mouth)
Into which structure in Figure 14.1 does the food pass but no digestion takes place?
In Figure 14.1, which organ is responsible for appendicitis?
4 (low, left)
chemicals found in fruits and vegetables that defend against free radicals.
Inflammation of the gums is
Individuals who think they are overweight but are actually starving suffer from
If the large intestine becomes irritated and peristalsis increases, ____ may result.
Abnormally large amounts of bilirubin in the blood will cause
Simple sugars are labeled as being "empty calories" because they provide energy but not any other nutritional requirements.
A low saturated fat and low cholesterol diet is believed to lower blood cholesterol and LDL levels.
The entrance and exit of air into and out of the lungs is called
The vocal cords are found in the
The Adam's apple is actually a part of the
Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the
Which part of the respiratory system is composed of C-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?
Which portion of the respiratory tract is commonly referred to as the "throat"?
From the bronchioles, air next passes into the ____ during inhalation in a human.
Which part of the respiratory system will have the least amount of cartilage and the thinnest walls?
The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the
It is extremely difficult to save a premature baby at 4 or 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a "wall" that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this "wall" past which they cannot push infant survival?
The premature alveoli do not develop surfactant to prevent their collapsing shut.
There is a certain amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs. This is called
The maximum volume of air that can be moved in plus the maximum volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath is the
In humans, the lungs are caused to inflate when the
rib muscles and diaphragm contract.
If a lung is punctured in a car accident, that lobe fails to inflate even though there is no obstruction of the air passageway to that lobe. Why?
When the chest volume expands, air can now rush in through the puncture without filling the alveoli.
Expired air will contain ____ than inspired air.
less oxygen but more carbon dioxide
How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
as carbon compounds and oxygen radicals
Blood richest in oxygen is found in the
Many lung ailments are "not curable but treatable." Which is more curable?
A lung disease caused by bacteria which become encapsulated is called
When nerve impulses pass to the diaphragm, the diaphragm relaxes and exhalation occurs.