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Collagenous and elastic fibers are found in ___ tissue

connective

Muscles are connected to bones by

tendons.

Which of the following is NOT a basic type of tissue?

urinary

Simple squamous epithelium has

a single layer of flat cells.

_________ bone contains numerous bony plates separated by irregular spaces.

Spongy

Bone cells are located in spaces called _____ between the rings of matrix.

lacunae

The fluid found between blood cells is called

plasma.

Which of the following tissues would line the mouth?

epithelial

Red blood cells are red due to

the red pigment hemoglobin.

Dendrites and an axon are parts of a(n)

neuron.

What is the function of neuroglial cells?

support and nourish neurons

Which type of tissue will respond to stimuli and transmit impulses?

nervous

Nerve fibers are composed of

axons.

A "spinal tap" would involve removing fluid from the _____ cavity.

dorsal

Usually it is not possible to penetrate inside a body cavity without cutting through protective tissues. However, sperm reach the egg via the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes (oviducts). Without crossing any epidermal barrier, the sperm can find itself inside which body cavity?

pelvic

The type of membrane that covers the heart is called a

serous membrane.

Which molecule is responsible for the waterproofing of the skin?

keratin

The part of the skin that has adipose tissue to help insulate the body is the

subcutaneous layer.

Melanin is a substance responsible for

skin pigmentation to protect from harmful light.

If you wash your skin and hair many times a day, you will soon have dry skin that cracks and bleeds because you have removed the _____ secreted by ______ that is necessary to keep the skin supple.

sebum; sebaceous glands

A __________ disease can be life-threatening, but usually occur quickly and are resolved quickly.

acute

The structure and function of an organ is dependent upon the structure and function of the lower organizational levels such as tissues and cells.

TRUE

When you look at someone, you are seeing primarily dead cells because cells at the surface of the epidermis are dead.

TRUE

Sweat glands in the skin help regulate body temperature.

TRUE

Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?

arteries

In humans, the superior vena cava

carries blood to the right atrium.

Systole occurs when

the heart tissue is contracting.

Which statement is NOT a correct association?

veins—contain small portion of overall blood volume

Incomplete closing of the ___ valves will cause heart ___.

atrioventricular; murmurs

The part of the circulation involved with pumping blood to and from the lungs is the

pulmonary circuit.

Which blood vessel has the highest concentration of carbon dioxide?

pulmonary artery

Oxygenated blood enters the heart at the

left atrium.

The blood vessel that provides oxygen to the heart tissue is the

coronary artery.

Usually there is only one capillary bed between an artery and vein; an exception to this is the

hepatic portal system which runs from the capillary bed in the intestine to the capillary bed in the liver via a hepatic portal vein.

The outer sac that encloses the heart and provides lubrication is the

pericardium.

Which of the following is NOT a correct association?

ventricles—receive blood from body

"Artery" and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the name(s) of

the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.

___________ is (are) a condition in which there are irregular dilations of veins due to breakdown of valves.

Varicose veins

Which specific component in hemoglobin combines with oxygen?

iron in the heme

Oxygen is transported in blood most efficiently by

forming a combination with a respiratory pigment, such as hemoglobin.

Aged red blood cells are destroyed in the

spleen and liver.

A person with normal blood volume and white cell count but low red cell count or low hemoglobin content may be suffering from

anemia.

Neutrophils and lymphocytes are types of

white blood cells.

In the fetal heart, the lungs are deflated and the fetus receives oxygen from its mother across the placenta through the umbilical cord. There is an opening in the wall between the left and right side of the fetal heart. This should normally grow closed before birth. What symptoms would be expected if this heart wall opening remained open?

Deoxygenated blood would mix with oxygenated blood and systemic circulation would have too little oxygen to sustain healthy growth.

There is a condition where a baby is born with an opening [foramen ovale] in the septum or wall between the atria. What are reasonable consequences?

disability when deoxygenated blood is mixed and sent to the body and partly oxygenated blood is sent to the lungs

Any disease-causing agent, either virus or bacteria, is a(n)

pathogen.

Which molecule causes the capillaries to dilate and become more permeable?

histamine

In order to decrease the effects of inflammation, you would take what type of medication?

antihistamine

Edema can be caused by

too much tissue fluid production.

Which is NOT part of a description of an antibody molecule?
contains a constant and a variable region on each chain

forms an X-shaped protein molecule

Apoptosis is

a natural programmed cell death.

The presence of antibodies in a newborn baby is most often due to

passive immunity from the mother.

Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection, that was very similar to more dangerous smallpox, as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. This was a case of these subjects

developing active immunity.

Cancer is more likely to occur in individuals who

have a faulty immune system.

How is a lymph capillary like a blood capillary?

Both have thin walls.

Anaphylactic shock may occur due to

a shot of penicillin.

A person who is blood type AB has

antigens A and B on the surface of RBCs.

Inflammation or the inflammatory response is a harmful process that should be avoided.

FALSE

When a person is bitten by a venomous snake, a donation of blood plasma from another person who has recently survived the same snake bite would provide some passive immunity.

TRUE

Tissue fluid that has entered the lymphatic vessels is called

lymph.

The digestive system does NOT function in the

manufacture of food molecules.

Which of these organs has food for the least time and participates least in digestion?

esophagus

A correct function of the human stomach is

storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to allow chemical digestion.

The digestive juices found in the stomach include

pepsin and hydrochloric acid.

The ____ functions to store food, kill bacteria, and partially digest proteins

stomach

Name the structure and organ that has microvilli, maltase, and absorbs nutrients.

villus, small intestine

In the processing of food through the digestive tract, what is the correct order?

bolus → chyme → feces

Which of the following is not true of the tongue?

The tongue secretes salivary amylase.

Which of the following is responsible for the storage of extra bile?
small intestine

gallbladder

In Figure 14.1, which structure is the liver?

1 (left top)

In Figure 14.1, the esophagus is designated by the number

3 (tube to mouth)

Into which structure in Figure 14.1 does the food pass but no digestion takes place?

3 (esophagus)

In Figure 14.1, which organ is responsible for appendicitis?

4 (low, left)

Antioxidants are

chemicals found in fruits and vegetables that defend against free radicals.

Inflammation of the gums is

gingivitis.

Individuals who think they are overweight but are actually starving suffer from

anorexia nervosa.

If the large intestine becomes irritated and peristalsis increases, ____ may result.

diarrhea

Abnormally large amounts of bilirubin in the blood will cause

jaundice.

Simple sugars are labeled as being "empty calories" because they provide energy but not any other nutritional requirements.

TRUE

A low saturated fat and low cholesterol diet is believed to lower blood cholesterol and LDL levels.

TRUE

The entrance and exit of air into and out of the lungs is called

ventilation.

The vocal cords are found in the

larynx.

The Adam's apple is actually a part of the

larynx.

Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the

epiglottis.

Which part of the respiratory system is composed of C-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?

trachea

Which portion of the respiratory tract is commonly referred to as the "throat"?

pharynx

From the bronchioles, air next passes into the ____ during inhalation in a human.

alveoli

Which part of the respiratory system will have the least amount of cartilage and the thinnest walls?

bronchioles

The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the

alveoli.

It is extremely difficult to save a premature baby at 4 or 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a "wall" that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this "wall" past which they cannot push infant survival?

The premature alveoli do not develop surfactant to prevent their collapsing shut.

There is a certain amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs. This is called

residual volume.

The maximum volume of air that can be moved in plus the maximum volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath is the

vital capacity.

In humans, the lungs are caused to inflate when the

rib muscles and diaphragm contract.

If a lung is punctured in a car accident, that lobe fails to inflate even though there is no obstruction of the air passageway to that lobe. Why?

When the chest volume expands, air can now rush in through the puncture without filling the alveoli.

Expired air will contain ____ than inspired air.

less oxygen but more carbon dioxide

How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?

as carbon compounds and oxygen radicals

Blood richest in oxygen is found in the

pulmonary veins.

Many lung ailments are "not curable but treatable." Which is more curable?

standard tuberculosis

A lung disease caused by bacteria which become encapsulated is called

tuberculosis.

When nerve impulses pass to the diaphragm, the diaphragm relaxes and exhalation occurs.

FALSE

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