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molecular biology

study of heredity at a molecular level

bacteriophages

viruses that exclusively effect bacteria (bacteria-eaters)

griffith

_________ noticed that when he killed pathogenic bacteria, some living bacterial cells were converted to the disease-causing form

E. coli

biologists chase and hershey performed a set of experiments that showed DNA to be the genetic material of T2 : a virus that infects.....

nucleotides

long chains (polymers) of chemical units (monomers)

nucleic

DNA and RNA are _____ acids

polynucleotide

a nucleotide polymer (chain)

sugar-phosphate backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate

deoxy

DNA is _______ (or without an oxygen) compared to RNA

eurkaryotic cells

DNA exists in the nuclei of.....

uracil

the nitrogenous base of RNA

double helix

2 polynucleotide strands

watson and crick

constructed a wire model of a double helix that agreed with Rosalind Franklin's data AND what they knew about the chemistry of DNA

semiconservative model

watson and cricks model for DNA replication:

when a double helix replicates, each of the 2 daughter molecules will have 1 old strand (which was part of the parental molecule) and 1 new strand

DNA ligase

enzyme that links/ligates the pieces together into a single DNA strand

DNA polymerases

enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand

transcription & translation

2 main stages of the molecular "chain of command"

transcription

the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA

translation

the synthesis of PROTEIN under the direction of RNA

translation

the use of the information in RNA to make a polypeptide

transcription

the transfer of info from DNA to RNA

codons

triplet code, the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of non-overlapping three-base "words" called _______

triplet code

experiments have verified that the flow of info from gene to protein is based on a .....

genetic code

set of rules that relate codons in RNA to amino acids in proteins

nirenberg

first codon was deciphered by ..((((192)))))

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