a proposal formed by Benjamin Franklin, when delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany, (established concept of colonial unity),here they tried to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois, by setting up a general government that would manage relations with Indians, but war was already breaking out and no one in the colonial assembly approved it.
Seven Years' War
known as the French and Indian War in the American colonies, for Europe it marked a struggle in North America in the 1750's and 60's, where England showed commercial supremacy over the French , and cemented their control over the regions of North America. In America, the war was a struggle among the three powers in Northeastern North America; Iroquois, English, and French.
white immigrants to the colonies during the seventeenth century, with French descent, owned many plantations in the lower Mississippi area.
The Iroquis Confederacy
the most powerful native group, made up of the five India nations; Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida, that formed a defensive alliance in the 15th century, and gained a lot of power through trade with the English or French, controlling most of the Great Lakes region.
King William's War
(1689-1697) one of the smaller clashes between the English and the French in northern New England.
Queen Anne's War and the Treaty of Utrecht
started in 1701 and continued for about 12 years, generating large conflicts, through a treaty, the conflict was brought to a close, and it transferred substantial territory from the English to the French ( Nova Scotia and Newfoundland).
King George's War
(1744-48), when disputes of trading rights between Spanish and English took place, a series of conflicts between the English and French took place, and ended with a peace treaty.
an inexperienced young colonel, given the power to command a Virginian militia force into the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion. This clash in which Washington surrendered marked the beginning of the French and Indian War.
the crude stockade fort built by Washington and his men, after staging an unsuccessful attack on a nearby French fort, the French countered by trapping Washington and his soldiers in side their own fort, a third of the men died fighting.
the large outpost of the French, built on the site of what is now Pittsburg, important in the first clash between the English and French, marking the beginning of the war.
the English secretary of state (future prime minister), brought the war between the English and French , under English control, by planning a military strategy, appointing commanders, and through relaxing English policies in America, he got colonists to join the fight.
a practice where British commanders forcibly enlisted colonists in the military.
Jefrey Amherst and James Wolfe
two brilliant English generals, captured the fort a Louisburg in July 1758, and caused the fall of Fort Duquesne (without a fight), and the final surrender of the French in Montreal.
Marquis de Montcalm
the commander of French forces, died along with English general Wolfe, in the final battle where the English seized control of Quebec, ending the war.
Battle of Quebec
an army led by English general Wolfe struggled up a hidden ravine under cover of darkness, surprised the larger forces of Montcalm, and defeated them in battle, both commanders dieing.
Peace of Paris 1763
marked the final end to the French and Indian war, where the French ceded to England some West Indian islands, most of their colonies in India and Canada, and other French territory east of the Mississippi, giving up al mainland of North America, to which they held title.
King George III
assuming power of the throne in 1760, he added more instability to the already broken British government and economy; wanting to reassert the power of the monarchy, he replaced the coalition of Whigs with his own, and he suffered from a rare mental disease, that added to his immaturity and insecurity that caused him to be irrational most of the time.
added to the problems between the crown and the colonies, when the king made him prime minister in 1763, shared the opinion that the colonist should have to obey the laws and to pay a part of the cost of defending and administering the British empire.
Ottawa chief, lead an alliance of Indian tribes in an attack on colonists, when the English moved out over their tribal lands and in the upper Ohio Valley.
The Proclamation of 1763
fearing escalation of the fighting that might threaten western trade, the British, forbade settlers to advance beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic coast from the interior
The Mutiny Act of 1763
when the Grenville ministry tried to increase its authorities in the colonies, British troops were stationed permanently in America, and colonists were required to help provision and maintain the army.
The Sugar At of 1764
raised the duty on sugar, while lowering the duty on molasses, establishing new vice- admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers, cutting them off from the sympathetic local juries.
The Currency Act of 1764
required that colonial assemblies stopped issuing paper money.
The Stamp Act of 1765
imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies; newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses, British officials could collect more that ten times as much annual revenue in America than before.
The Paxton Boys
a band of Pennsylvania frontiersmen who descended on Philadelphia to demand tax relief and financial support for their defense against Indians, bloodshed was avoided through concessions from the colonial assembly.
at a meeting at the Virginian House of Burgesses, he claimed (to cries of treason),that if present policies were not changed, King George would loose his head, while also declaring that Americans deserved the same rights as Englishmen, and no tax without representation.
the claims or declarations made by Patrick Henry during the meeting of the Virginia House of Burgesses, which aroused America into action against the crown.
persuaded fellow members of the colonial assembly to call an intercolonial congress to take action against the new tax, and in October1765, the Stamp Act Congress (9 delegates from various colonies) met in New York, where they claimed that colonies could not rightfully be taxed without their own representation.
Sons of Liberty
one of the largest mobs that rose up in the colonies, against the Stamp Act, terrorizing stamp agents, burning stamps, and attacking pro- British aristocrats.
one of the men attacked by the Sons of Liberty, he had privately opposed the passage of the Stamp Act, but felt obliged to support it when it became law, and his elegant house was pillaged and virtually destroyed
after parliament repealed the Stamp Act, the prime minister passed this act that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever", but the Americans paid little attention to this.
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, most of the ill prime minister's power fell to him, and had to deal with many of the colonial grievances left over from the Grenville ministry.
Mutiny Act (act Quatering Act) 1765
the act that required the colonists to provide shelter and supplies for British troops, colonists hated this act not because of what it required, but because of the fact that it was required by London, and the Massachusetts and New York assemblies even refused to vote the supplies to troops.
when the colonies refused the Mutiny Act, Townshend imposed new taxes on goods imported to the colonies from England; lead, paint, paper and tea. Although the taxes were on external transactions, the Americans still resented them.
when British soldiers competed with local workers in Boston, clashes between the two groups were frequent. On March 5, 1770, a mob of dockworkers, "liberty boys" and others began pelting the customs house with rocks, and when the British regiment tried to protect the building, through the scuffle, they fired and killed five people, causing a public outrage in the colonies
Sam Adams and the Committe of Correspondence
leading figure in public outrage over the Boston Massacre, through this he argued that England was a land of sin and corruption, and that only in America did public virtue survive, and publicized the colonies grievances against England, causing the spirit of dissent to grow.
Virtual and Actual Representation
England believed in Virtual representation in the government, where certain groups of people didn't have their own representation in Parliament, but that Parliament represented England as a whole. Contradictory to this belief, the Americans, through town meetings and colonial assemblies, they believed in actual representation, where every community was entitled to its own representative, elected by people of that community.
a British revenue ship on the lower Delaware River, set fire and sunk by a group of colonial rebels.
British East Indai Tea Company and The Tea Act of 1773
when this British company had large stocks of tea that could not be sold in England, the government passed this act, which gave the company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies without paying the regular taxes imposed on the colonial merchants, with these privileges, the company could undersell American merchants and monopolize the colonial trade.
Daughters of Liberty
a women's patriotic organization that was committed to agitating against British policies proclaimed, "rather than Freedom, we'll part with our Tea."
The Boston Tea Party
as an act of resistance, on the night of December 16, 1773, three groups of fifty men each, masquerading as Mohawk Indians, went aboard three ships, broke open the tea chests, and heaved them into the harbor
The Coercive Acts of 1774 (aka Intolerable Acts)
retaliation by Parliament for the Boston Tea Party, reducing the powers of self-government in Massachusetts, permitting royal officers in America to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and providing for the quartering of troops by the colonists.
followed the Coercive Acts, tended the boundaries of Quebec to include the French communities between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and granted political rights to Roman Catholics and recognized the legality of the Roman Catholic Church within the enlarged province.
First Continental Congress
delegates from all the colonies except Georgia were present when, in 1774, the First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia. They made five major decisions; rejected a plan for a colonial union under British authority, endorsed a relatively moderate statement of grievances, approved a series of resolutions recommending that military preparations be made for defense against possible attack by British troops in Boston, agreed to a series of boycotts that they hoped would stop all trade with Britain, and they formed a continental association to see that these agreements were enforced.
propositions made by Lord North, and approved by parliament, they said that the colonies would tax themselves at Parliament's demand, believing it would separate American moderates, who believed in the views of the majority, not the extremist minority, but they came too late as the war had already begun.
Lexington and Concord
the first battle fought in the American revolution, fought between the Minute men of Massachusetts and the British garrison under General Thomas Gage. The British arrived in Lexington at night, after hearing of the colonials large supply of arson, and tried to seize the illegal supplies without bloodshed, but the patriots who were expecting the attack, met the British at Concord, where the battle took place, and more British were killed in battle than Americans
William Dawes and Paul Revere
two horsemen who rode out to warn villages and farms of Lexington that the British were coming and for the minutemen to prepare for battle (1 by land, 2 by sea).