Large LAND ecosystems that have silimar climate, plants, animals, and soil types. Two major factors that define a Biome are TEMPERATURE and PRECIPITATION.
A community of organisms and their non-living environment where matter cycles and enrgy flows.
Non-living factors, such as soil and temperature
An individual living thing
A group of organisms that can produce FERTILE offspring.
The complete genetic composistion of an organism.
A sequence of DNA that occupies a specific posistion on a chromosome and is responsible for the production of an enzyme, peptide, or RNA.
A chemical change in a DNA molecule that affects characteristics when cells reproduce.
Refers to changes in the frequency of a gene in a population as a result of chance rather than mutation, natural selection, or migration.
The scientific name for a species. For instance, humans are known as Homo sapiens. The first word is always capital, the second word is always lower case and the name as a whole is always either underlined or in italics.
A group of individuals of the same species living in one place.
A group of interacting populations.
An organism's way of life, how it fits into the environment.
Where an organism lives.
What are adaptations typical of a predator?
Fast and agile with sharp teeth, capable of tearing flesh from the prey, with foreward facing eyes. They may hunt in packs or alone, use camoflauge, have powerful senses, such as the ability to see at night, or venom.
What are adaptations typically seen in prey?
The ability to hide, possibly with camoflauge, very fast, elevated senses, and may produce toxins. They might travel in a herd, and have eyes lovated on either side of the head in order to spot predators.
An interrelationship where both parties benfit and improves each's chance for survival. There are 3 types: Non-Symbiotic, Symbiosis, and Endosymbiosis.
The two species do not live together, they live apart. Example: A bee and a flower.
The two species involved live together, sometimes even inside one another. Generally, neither can survive without the other. Example: Goby and Shrimp.
The association between the two is so close that the distinction between the individual components is almost imperceptible. Example: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria organelles in cells.
A One-to-One relationship between species. They each depend directly and entirely on the other species. Example: The Yucca Moth and the Yucca plant.
Involves several species, less restrictive, and does not depend solely on one species. Example: Flowers and pollinators.
How can one identify a "target pollinator"?
Color, configuration, and odor of a flower is directed at specific pollinators:
Red flowers = birds, because they see red very well.
Blue flowers = insects, for the same reason.
Flowers near the ground = mammals
Night Flowering = bats or reptiles
Rotten odor = flies
The relationship between two species where one species benefits and the other remains unaffected. Example: The Clown fish and anemone. The Clown fish lives in the anemone because it is immune to the plant's toxins, and then relies on the plant for protection while the plant is unaffected.
Any organism that feeds on living plant tissue, including grazing animals and leaf eating insects.
What adaptations does a herbivor typically have?
Usually a herbivor is equipped with teeth suitable for granding plant mater and long necks to reach high foliage.
What defenses does a plant use physically?
Hairs, spines, hookes, or gluey liquid secretions.
What defenses does a plant use chemically?
-Toxins: such as poisons, allergins, or hallucinogins.
-Parasite/Predator attractants: some attract predators or parasites to deter consumers from coming at all.
-"Early Warning": some emit an early warning compound that notifies other plants of an attack and thus triggering the production of toxins and other chemical defenses in nearby plants.
A relationship in which one benefits at the expense of the other. This relationship is often highly specific. The parasite can live within the body or outsite of the body. Example: Mosquitoes and humans.
A higher level of parasitism in which the host is untimately killed by the parasite.
A compound produced by some plants that inhibits the germination or growth of nearby competing plant species.
Because all species strive for survival, competition is the result of two species who use the same resource.
The Competitive Exclusion Principle
The principle that two species that have exactly the same needs cannot co-exist in the same habitat. This is where survival of the fittest comes in.
Also known as "Alien" or "Invasive" species, these are species introduced to an area by an unnatural event such as human acivity.
Why are exotic species so successful?
They are able to tap into a large underutilized food source, they have no natural predators, and they may be better adapted than the native species. Example: The African Water Lily or the Zebra Mussel.
Adjustments made bythe organism in respect to its environment. This is evolution through change inherited genration after generation.
Related evolutionary changes between two closely associated species. This is very common in the tropics, which is why there is so much diversification there.
The change in a organism over generations that produce a new species.
What determines evolution by natural selection?
1. All organisms produce more offspring than can survive
2. The environment is hostile (climate, predators, etc.)
3. Individuals vary in their traits
4. Some traits give individuals an advantage
5. Individuals with an advantage survive and therefore produce more offspring with the same traits.