What was the sequence of human migration across the planet?
A me Eats Apple And Pear
Africa, Middle East, Eurasia, Australia, America, Pacific
Why did some Paleolithic peoples abandon earlier, more nomadic ways and begin to live a more settled life?
Could store and accumulate food, more consistent, sure, and convenient
What is the significance of the Paleolithic Era in world history?
It is the longest era in world history
What accounts for the emergence of agriculture after countless millennia of human life without it?
End of Ice Age fertilized the ground, also killed harmful plants and animals.
In what ways did agriculture spread? Where and why was it resisted?
Diffusion- gradual spread, also "slow colonization or migration of agricultural peoples as growing populations pushed them outward", resisted in places where crops were unable to grow, or when the people already had the things needed to live in abundance without agriculture
What was revolutionary about the Agricultural Revolution?
no more moving around, more reliable source of food.
What different kinds of societies emerged out of the Agricultural Revolution?
chiefdoms, kinship societies, pastoralists and agriculturalists
The Agricultural Revolution marked a decisive turning point in human history. What evidence would you give to support this claim, and how might you argue against it?
For: new domesticated crops and animals,
Argue: humans were able to get enough resources for themselves before agriculture
When and where did the First Civilizations emerge?
3500-3000 BC- Mesopotamia, Sumer, Nile Valley, Nubia, Norte Chico, 2000 BC- Indus Valley, Xia China(followed by Shang and Zhou, Olmec
In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations?
Code of Hammurabi, etc
What were the sources of state authority in the First Civilizations?
voluntary leaders, not elected
In what ways did Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations differ from each other?
Egypt- more optimistic, mostly because the Nile was predictable and flooded at the some time every year, not destroying crops, protected from invasion, "more sustainable agricultural system", unified, some urban presence(not as much as Mesopotamia)
Mesopotamia- Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded unpredictably, damaging crops, les optimistic because of this, very open to invasion, environmental problems, city-states lead to internal conflict, huge urban presence
Both "carried on extensive long-distance trade" with each other and other areas
What accounts for the initial breakthroughs to civilization?
agricultural revolution, surplus of food so not everyone had to grow it, those who didn't could specialize in other areas
What was the role of cities in early civilizations?
large urban populations, temples, markets, shops, technology, centers of all aspects of culture, govenment, and economy