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palaeoanthropologist

Students who study the Origins & Species

myth

A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.

australopithecus

They had brains that were half the size of a normal human

homo habilis

the earliest member of the genus Homo, found on sites dating between 2.5 and 1.6 million years ago

homo erectus

discovered fire, made little pieces of cloth from animal skin, lived in bands, used simple words and gestures too speak, had a massive jaw

homo sapiens

The current human species that evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. It includes archaic forms such as (now extinct) Neanderthals and all modern humans

homo neanderthalensis

ranged from europe to middle east, including israel and iraq; 12k to 30k YBP, used same tools as homo sapiens, bigger brains than ours; overlapped with homo sapiens in europe for 10k years

evolution

change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

paradigm

an example that is a perfect pattern or model (Because the new SUV was so popular, it became the paradigm upon which all others were modeled

ice age

any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface

agricultural village

A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.

fertile crescent

a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates

prehistory vs history

the time before written records. all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing

features of a civilization

Sumerians in Mesopotamia- first irrigation civilization, drainage from the Tigris and Euphrates, first, large cities, writing, buildings, wheel, bricks, plow, bronze. Theocracy changes to monarchy, different classes= different treatment. Egyptians- No middle class, no cities, lived in huts along Nile, mainly farming, slaves, not many problems with them. Chinese- many records with writing, monarchy, Warring states starts when Zhou lose control, live in small villages with few large towns, agriculture no rice, no trade, maybe matriarchy. Emperor is high priest (confuciasism). Greeks- difference between slave and free men, Sparta fights Athens in Peloponesian War, leads to Barbarians Mesodonian takeover, small farms, maritime trade, no large fertile areas, over population causes emigration, religion is civic duty, disrespect Gods. Romans- Etruscan and Greeks effected early Roman civilization, Roman laws, started out with mainly peasants then slaves and unfree immigrants from Africa, Italy becomes dependent on food imports,plantations and estates replace farms

out of africa

family units, clans. tribe Speciation in Africa 100-200 kyr • Expansion out of Africa • Replacement of all non-African species - Modern genes, morphology and behavior appear in African 1st and subsequently replace archaic (eg Neandertal) behavior everywhere

family units

primary social group

nomadic hunter/gathers

A member of a group of people who have no permanent home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and land.

domestication of plants and animals

Early humans domesticated plants and aminals to suit their needs.

metalworking

provided humans with tools and weapons far superior to any made of stone or wood.

division of labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers

neolithic

The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period.

mesopotamia

first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture

sumer

A group of ancient city-states in southern Mesopotamia; the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.

sargon of akkad

an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.

akkadian empire

Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.

city-state

a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside

gilgamesh

the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story

ziggurat

a temple in Mesopotamia. It had a distinctive shape and was used to store commodities and goods that were given as offerings. People worked and lived there.

ur

an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River

pictograms

the earliest forms of writing in which pictures represent words or ideas

cuneiform

Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets

ideograms

The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.

code of hammurabi

the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety

nile

this famous body of water in africa is where the great egyptian civilizations grew is

cataract

great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a gradual loss of eyesight)

pharaoh

ruler of Ancient Egypt

menes

king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt

ma'at

the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head

mummification

(pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color

pyramid

enlarge one's holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts

old kingdom

2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.

middle kingdom

2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.

hyksos

the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.

new kingdom

the period of ancient egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C.

akhenaten

Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)

akhetaten

new city located near Amarna

hieroglyphics

a writing system in which pictures and symbols are used to represent words and sounds

indus valley civilization

also known as Harappan civilization,located in India along the Indus River,near the Thar Desert and the Himalayas Mountains

harappa

Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.

mohenjo-daro

Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system.

aryans

nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system

caste system

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society

yangshao culture

a formative Chinese culture located at Ordos bulge ca. 2500 to 2000 B.C.E.; primarily an intensive hunting and gathering society supplemented by shifting cultivation.

longshan culture

3000-2200BC, development of ritual and political hierarchies, large walled settlements, evidence of war, specialized craft, shmanistic cults with oracle bones, scapulimacy, mythical animals

xia dynasty

dynasty who ruled over a late neolithic people in early China

shang dynasty

Beginning in 1700BC a 600 year rule that spread along the Huang River until it ruled over 100 towns

zhou dynasty

the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism

yellow river

In the Summer, the river rages out of control. Since 200 BC, flooded surrounding area about 1,500 times and made nine major course changes.

oracle bones

cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated

sage kings

Legendary rulers of China c. 2800-c. 2200. Of the three sovereigns and five emperors based in the Huang He (Yellow River) region, Huang-tu (reigned c. 2697 BC) is credited with defeating the barbarians. The era has been associated with the domestication of animals, agricultural development, the gradual replacement of stone implements with bronze, and the formation of larger tribal confederacies.

anyang

the anciant Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty

mandate of heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source

olmecs

(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.

zapotecs

Civilization that flourished in southern Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (c. 500 B.C.E. to C.E. 600)

teotihucan

Pyramids were center. city is still here. believed in religious sacrafices

maya

a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy

moche

Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.

chimu

Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465.

chavin

First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.

mississippi valley mounds

Mississippi joined the union under the condition that the military force the slaves to continue to work for the owners. the military had the slaves sign contracts stating they would not leave unless given permission. most slaves couldn't even read.

nok culture

earliest known west african culture, farmers, first to smelt iron weapons and tools, traded, believe to have settled in djenne-djenno located near niger river, also located on important trade routes.

jenne jeno

Ancient West African city that existed for more than 1600 years where the Niger and Bani Rivers meet.

hegemony

the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others

dominance

An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant

sargon of akkad

an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.

babylonians

Of or relating to Babylonia or Babylon or their people, culture, or language.An ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.

persian empire

a huge empire ranging from Asia Minor to India; Darius I unified the empire by creating provinces and giving each province a ruler; encouraged a money economy with coins rather than goods

amorites

a Semitic people from Syria--military forces went into Mesopotamia--produced a ruler who would dominate Mesopotamia--his name was Hammurabi

hammurabi

King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.

hittites

A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria

indo european

people who livedi the steppes near europe and talked and the language of indo european which is thought to be the basic of 50 of todays languages

battle of qadesh

fight that occurred between Egyptians and Hittites over control of Syria in 1274 BCE. Each side had around 20,000 men, and it eventually ended with a draw.

assyrians

"Spartans of the near east." ONe of the most warlike ppl in history. Army- very powerful. fully equiped with iron. used charriots, calvary. war machines, controlled ppl through systematic terrorism. To destroy national feeling used mass deporttion. Culture-not original. Borrowedheavily from others and unified deverse elements.Had originality in ther relief structure. Women of palace set to secluded quarters. in public-veiled. Synonym to brutality. they publicized it other countries didnt.

assyrian empire

this empire covered much of what is now mesopotamia, syria, palestine, egypt, and anatolia; its height was during the seventh and eigth centuries BCE

new kingdom

the period of ancient egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C.

hyksos

the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.

thutmosis

Egyptian ruler, son of Thutmose I, half brother of Thutmose III.

ramses

Called Ramses II or Ramses the Great. led the Egyptians to fight their neighbors, the Hittites for control of Syria. After Battle of Kadesh, the two empires made a peace treaty. Ruled for 67 years. Built many tombs and statues, 52 sons.

hatshepsut

Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.

akhenaten

Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. The Amarna letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspondence with subjects and neighbors

nubia

an ancient region in the Nile River Vally, on the cite of present- day southern Egypt and northern Sudan

cyrus the great

brilliant warrior king, who quickly overcame the Medes. Extended the domains from the borders of India to the Mediterranean

satrapy

the twenty provinces that Darius divided the empire into; each province was ruled by a governor

zarathustra

the mythical founder of chief prophet of the Ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism, which influenced Jewish and later Christian belief

zoroastrianism

dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity

minoans

of or relating to the advanced Bronze Age culture that flourished in Crete from about 3000 to 1100 B.C.

knossos

Minoan Palace, decked out with jewels and frescos (plumbing, heat)

mycenaeans

civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.

polis

the early greek city-state, made up of a city and surrounding countryside and run like an independent country

agora

the open space that served as the civic center and market place of ancient Greek cities

athens

Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.

democracy

government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.

solon

Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt

homer

ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey

socrates

Devoted himself to discussion with the aristocratic young citizens of Athens, qestioning the truth of popular opinions. Charged with corrupting the youth of Athens they sentenced him to death in 399 B.C.E. Accepting this outcome, Socrates drank hemlock and died

plato

Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society

aristotle

Greek philosopher and scientist. He was among the most influential of philosophers in Western history

cleisthenes

Athenians reformer of the late 6th centurybc.; established democratic Counxil of 500 in Athens

hoplite

Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128

peloponnesian war

a war fought between Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece.

alexander the great

Greek military leader whos armies conquerd vast amounts of land, ruler of 1st great European Empire of the ancient world

hellenistic

a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.

ecumene

The proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.

pax romana

means "Roman Peace;" specifically the term that refers to the peace and stability that Rome maintained within its borders during the early empire.

republic

a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives

century

a period of 100 years

oligarch

one of several people who rule a country or empire together, sharing the power

consul

one of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges

senate

In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.

punic wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

tribune

In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.

plebeian

In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up most of the population.

patrician

a member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic

paterfamilias

the male head of a household; the father of a family.

g. marius

Roman general and consul: opponent of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

triumvirate

In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.

julius caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

octavian augustus caesar

demanded being named consul, split control of italy with antony and controlled sicily and africa, had total control once his army defeated marc antony and cleopatra

mark antony

general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra

cleopatra

She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.

battle of actium

battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.

imperator

comes from the Latin word "imperium"; translates to power of command

colosseum

A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place

virgil

greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write

mithraism

Mystery religion; underground chambers were used to conduct secret rituals involving the slaughter of bulls; followers were mostly military men

isis

Egyptian goddess who appealed especially to women. She promised life after death to people who were faithful

mystery religion

Can't participate in religion until you've undergone indoctrination and ritual of admission. In early Christianity, the training was called catechism and the ritual of admission into church was baptism.

stoicism

The principles or the practice of the Stoics-being very even tempered in success and failure.

constantine

The emperor who brought Christianity to Rome. He also re-located Rome's capital to Constantinople, the city that was once named Byzantium.

edict of milan

issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

celts

Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west, onquered by Romans (90)

goths

Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire

justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

justinian code

a set of laws, written by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, that served the Byzantine Empire for hundreds of years

iconoclasm

a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of image

warring states period

covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC.

qin dynasty

the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall

qin shi huangdi

First Emperor; only emperor of Qin Dynasty; legalist; abolished feudalism and established a bureaucracy; anti-religion; building of Great Wall and other public works

confucius

chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life

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