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Ch 1 & 2

Listening to the natural sounds made by the body, such as heart and lung sounds

auscultation

Histology

microscopic examination of tissue specimens

Harvey

scientist who first discovered the role of the heart, arteries and veins in blood circulation

Hooke

scientist who first observed cells under a microscope

law of nature

a level of knowledge that can be used to predict how matter and energy behave

a statement of theory

kind of statement intended to summarize what is already known, predict what might happen, and suggest directions for further study

Proper experimental design includes all of the following:

statistical treatment of the results
methods to prevent experimenter bias such as the double-bind method
the control group receives similar treatment to that of the experimental group, except for the test variable

If a scientist were to speculate were to speculate about the causes of a phenomenon without any definite proof, it would be a

hypothesis

Evolution can be defined as a change in genetic composition. Which of the following terms describes the mechanism believed to be responsible for such changes?

natural selection

During human evolution, humans have developed which characteristics?

color and stereoscopic vision
bipedalism
prehensile hand

Humans are different from other primates because they have

bipedalism

The theory of evolution

explains the slight variance in DNA structure between chimpanzees and humans

Situs invernus and horsehoe kidney are examples of

anatomical variation

A mass of similar cells that forms a discrete region of our body is a

tissue

What part of a feedback loop processes information and determines an appropriate response?

integrator

If you become overheated, which of the following negative feedback mechanisms are used to lower your body temperature?

sweating and vasodilation of surface blood vessels

Development is a characteristic of life that involves

differentiation

The tendency for the bodies of living things to maintain more of less stable internal conditions is called

homeostasis

If your blood pressure started to rise very rapidly, a set of activities that your body would undertake to reverse this potentially dangerous condition would probably begin. The process that would restore stability are called, collectively,

negative feedback

Eponym

a term coined from the names of people

Acronym

word composed of the first letter or first few letters of a series of words

Anatomy

study of structure

Physiology

study of function

Hypocrites

the "father of medicine," established a code of ethics for physicians that is still recited in modern form my many graduating medical students

The Zodiac Man is an illustration from a 15th century medical manuscript that reflects the medical belief in the influence of __ on parts of the body

astrology

inductive method

process of making numerous observations until ones feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them

Evolution

change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms

Reductionism

theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its similar components

childbirth

an example of normal positive feedback that occurs in the body and is not life threatening or harmful

gross anatomy

structure that can be observed with the naked eye

homeo-

same

The simplest structures considered to be alive are

cells

Versalius

revolutionized the teaching of gross anatomy

theory

embodies the greatest amount of scientific information

hypothesis

an informed, uncertain, but testable conjecture

positive feedback

a self-amplifying chain of physiological events

Which of the following is NOT a human organ system?
integumentary
muscular
epithelial
nervous
endocrine

epithelial

Palpation

studying anatomy by touch

hetero-

different

dissection

cutting and separating tissues to reveal structural relationships

Robert Hooke

invented many components of the compound microscope and named the cell

deduction

a scientist predicts what the result of a certain experiment will be if his or her hypothesis is correct

psychosomatic effects

physiological effects of a person's mental state

homeostasis

tendency of the body to maintain stable internal conditions

Blood pH averages 7.4 but fluctuates from 7.35 to 7.45. A pH of 7.4 can therefore be considered the __ for this variable.

set point

Self corrective mechanisms in physiology care called __ loops

negative feedback loops

organ

simplest body structure composed of two or more types of tissue

Depth perception, or the ability to form three-dimensional images, is also called

stereoscopic vision

Our hands are said to be __ because they can encircle an object such as a branch or a tool. The presence of an __ thumb is important to this ability.

prehensile, opposable

auscult-

ausultation - listen

dis-

dissection - apart

homeo-

homeostasis - the same

metabolo-

metabolism- change

palp-

palpation - touch

physio-

physiology - nature

-sect

dissection - cut

-stasis

homeostasis - to stay

stereo-

stereoscopic - solid

tomo-

tomography - to cut

Auscultation

listening to heart & body sounds

Leeuwenhoek

a textile merchant who build microscopes to examine fabric

a scientific theory

founded on a large body of evidence and summarizes what is already known

volunteer patients

in treatment and control groups

negative feedback

self-corrective process with a beneficial effect on the body

inventions of Carl Zeiss and Ernest Abbe

necessary to the work of a modern histopathologist

There are more organelles than

cells in the body

scuba

acronym for self contained breathing apparatus

The great mobility of the primate shoulder joint

is an adaptation to the arboreal habitat

Which of the following is not an essential part of anatomical position?
feet together
feet flat on the floor
forearms supinated
mouth closed
arms down to the sides

mouth closed

A ring shaped section of the small intestine would be a

transverse section

The tarsal region is distal to the

popliteal region

The greater momentum is superficial

to the small intestine

A midsagittal line passes through the

sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis

The inguinal region is immediately medial to the

coxal region

WHich of the following regions is not part of the upper limb?
plantar
carpal
cubital
brachial
palmar

plantar

Which of these organs is within the peritoneal cavity?

liver

In which area would pain from the gallbladder be felt?

right upper quadrant

urinary system

organ system that regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance, and stimulates red blood cell production

The forearm is supinated

when the palms are facing forward

parietal pleura

the superficial layer of the pleura

mediastinum

the right and left pleural cavities are separated by this thick wall

nuchal region

the back of the neck

the manus is most commonly known as the

hand

the pes is most commonly known as the

foot

the cranial cavity is lined by the membranes called the

meninges

Organs that lie within the abdominal cavity but not within the peritoneal cavity are said to have a

retroperitoneal position

The sternal region is medial

to the pectoral region

the pelvic cavity can be described as inferior

to the abdominal cavity in its position

the anterior pit of the elbow is the cubital region and the corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the

popliteal region

ante-

antebrachium - before

cervico-

cervical - neck

epi-

epigastric-above

hypo-

hypochondriac-below

inguino-

inguinal-groin

intra-

intraperitoneal-within

parieto-

parietal-wall

peri-

peritoneum-around

retro-

retroperitoneal-behind

sagitto-

saggittal-arrow

A single sagittal section of the body can pass through

one lung but not through both

It would be possible to see both eyes

in one frontal section of the head

The knee is both superior and

proximal to the tarsal region

The diagrapragm is inferior to the

lungs

The esophagus is superior to the

stomach

The liver extends from the hypochondriac to the

epigastric region, superior to the lumbar region

The heart is in the

mediastinum

Both kidneys could be shown in a

single coronal section of the body

The peritoneum lines the outside

of the stomach and intestines

The sigmoid colon is in the

lower left quadrant

If the atomic weight of hydrogen =1 amu and oxygen = 16 amu, what is the molecular weight of water?

18

If an atom undergoes ionization to lose two electrons, what is its new charge?

positive two

Which of the forms of ionizing radiation from a source outside the body is the most dangerous?

gamma ray

Valance electrons

determine chemical bonding properties
are electrons of the outermost shell
have a maximum number of eight

Which of the following is INCORRECT?
Isotopes have identical chemical behaviors.
Isotopes have different physical properties
Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers.
Unstable isotopes decay and release radiation.

Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers

The amount of an electrolyte that would neutralize one mole of H+ or OH- is always called

one equivalent (Eq)

What is the mEq/L of 2mM Fe^3 electrolyte solution?

6meEq

Chemical solutions that resist changes in pH are called

buffers

One molar solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH-molecular weight 40) would contain one liter of water and how much sodium hydroxide?

40g

When counting items we commonly refer to twelve of something as a dozen. What is the term used to describe Avogadro's number of 6.023 X 10 to the 23rd?

a mole

When a nicotinamide molecule picks up an extra electron, it becomes

reduced

The joining of two glucose molecules, with the subsequent removal of water to form maltose is an example of a

dehydration synthesis reaction

A catalyst would

reduce reaction time

What type of reaction is represented in the following chemical equation? AB->A+B

decomposition reaction

What carbohydrate is impossible for humans to digest?

cellulose

What conjugated carbohydrates are attached to cell surfaces?

glycolipids and glycoproteins

Triglyceride molecule

contains a glycerol molecule
contains three fatty acids
has a neutral pH

Primary function of elcosanoids

chemical signaling between cells

The removal of a phosphate group would yield

a large amount of energy

All of the following are lesser elements in our bodies except:
potassium
sulfur
nitrogen
chlorine

nitrogen

The transfer of electrons from one atom to another is called

ionization

Molecules that freely dissolve in water are

hydophillic

ATP is commonly used as an

energy currency molecule for the cell

A substance that contains at least two different elements

is a chemical compound

An ionic bond is formed when

an anion meets a cation

The ionization of a sodium atom to produce Na+ is an example of

catabolism

The weakest and most temporary of the chemical bonds is

hydrogen bonds

hydrophilic

substance capable of dissolving freely in water

A carboxyl group is symbolized by

COOH

The only polysaccharide synthesized in the human body is

glycogen

The arrangement of a polypeptide into a fibrous or globular shape is called

tertiary structure

Which of the following functions is more characteristic of carbohydrates than of proteins?

energy storage

The feature that most distinguishes a lipid from a carbohydrate is that a lipid has

a lower ratio of oxygen to hydrogen

When an atom gives up an electron and acquires a positive charge, it is called a

cation

Dietary antioxidants are important because they neutralize

free radicals

Any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by it is a

catalyst.
In the human body, enzymes serve this function.

All of the synthesis reactions in the body form a division of metabolism called

anabolism

A chemical reaction that joins two organic molecules into a larger one & produces water as a by-product is called

dehydration synthesis

-ose

sugar (suffix)

-ase

enzyme (suffix)

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