By when did most LATAM nations gain independence?
The early 19th century
Why did LATAM end up in dependent economic positions with a highly centralized government?
Because the enlightened leaders had no republican experience, class and regionalism was leading to conflicts, and wealth was unevenly distributed.
What is a Creole?
A person of Spanish ancestry who was not born on the Iberian Peninsula
During this time period, the Creoles wanted to end _______?
Colonial status (they were questioning colonialism)
Why were many early revolutions in LATAM failing?
Distrust of the lower classes by the upper class liberals
What 4 external events caused political change in LATAM?
The American revolution, the French revolution, Haitian independence, and Spain and Portugal being conquered by Napoleon.
Which Creole priest led the Creole conspiracy in Mexico which later led to a revolution? Who did he persuade to help him?
Father Miguel de Hidaglo; Indians and Mestizos
What is a Mestizo?
A person of mixed Indian and Spanish ancestry
Why did Hidaglo lose support?
The upper class feared sharing power with the lower classes, so he was executed.
Despite Hidaglo's execution, the Mexican revolution continued on and was helped due to...?
The weakened position of the Spanish monarch in Europe
The revolution was moving on, and the Creoles decided to unite. Which two groups set aside their differences for a better Mexico?
The Creole conservatives and revolutionaries
In 1820, Mexico finally won its independence under Creole military leader _________.
The new Independent Mexican state was a _________, which quickly collapsed in 1824.
Monarchy based on Creole dominance and imperial control over central American areas
Mexico soon became a __________, and Central America became _________.
republic; several independent nations.
Cuba and Puerto Rico were (loyal/disloyal) to Spain until 1898, when they were ceded to _______ after the _________ war
Loyal; USA; Spanish-American
In Northern South America, an independence movement was started by __________, a wealthy Creole officer
Simon Bolivar advocated a ___________ form of government, and began his revolution in the city of ________ in 1810.
Ultimately, Simon Bolivar won independence in which 3 regions? These regions were politically united as what until 1830?
Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador; Gran Columbia
In Southern South America, and independence movement began in Rio de la Plata led by whom?
Jose de San Martin
Which Southern South American city, growing resentful of Spanish trade restrictions, opted for autonomy in 1810?
The Portuguese royal family and nobility, fleeing from Napoleon, moved where in 1807?
What city became the capital of the Portuguese empire with the royal family residing in it?
Rio de Janeiro
Which Portuguese king residing in Brazil returned to Portugal in 1820? Who did he leave as regent of Brazil?
Joao VI; His son Pedro
When it became clear that Brazil was to return to colonil status, Pedro declared independence and became the _________________.
The liberal leaders and Conservative defenders in the new world were fighting over what conflicts?
Freedom of religion, slavery, property and literacy qualifications to vote, and treatment of the Mestizos and Indians.
Why did the Liberal Creole elites not want an egalitarian society?
They were suspicious and distrusting of the lower classes and did not want to give them power
What were some major problems for the new LATAM nations?
Uninvolvment of the majority of the population in politics, suffering after years of warfare for independence
What were the Caudillos?
LATAM warlords with loyal private regional armies
Centralists advocated ___________ and were usually __________ who supported an __________
Strong central governments; conservatives, active church
Federalists advocated ___________ and were usually __________ who supported an __________
Weak central governments and strong regional governments; Liberals: Limited church/secularism
There was a general (lack/gain) of stability in LATAM just after independence was gained?
_________ was attempting to stop LATAM independence, which was halted by ___________ and _________
Spain, Britain, USA
Declared any EUR attempts to colonize LATAM as an act of war
________ was replacing Spain as a dominant economic force in LATAM
A new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations, basically economic imperialism
LATAM was (independent/dependent) on American and European economics?
Exports increases in a 2nd wave of demand for LATAM products, increasing ______ and ___________ in LATAM.
The LATAM ________ joined with the European ___________ class to expand capitalism, in efforts that will eventually backfire.
The economic growth lead to a displacement of the ________ class
Working/farming; leading them to indentured servitude and unskilled labor for low wages.
The Mexican constitution was a ___________ document that established a _________ form of government and guaranteed basic civil rights, but did not address what four major problems?
federalist; republican; unequal wealth, poor treatment of Indians, poor education, poverty.
What was the Mexican-American war?
A war between Mexico and Americans settling in Texas, right near the Northern border of Mexico, and California, ending with Mexican defeat and the loss of about one half of Mexican territory to the US. It created Mexican nationalism and bitter distrusts of the Americans with a serious loss of Mexican economic potential.
The need for raw materials from LATAM that caused an economic skyrocket in the 1880s through the 1920s was known as the ______________.
Who ultimately controlled the Panama canal for many years up until recently?