headed the revolutionary alliance, an anti0wing political group that spearheaded the 1911 revolt. however it was hard to control warlord china. eventually gave control to warlord yuan shikai but then had a second revolution to oust him after his true motives shined. he tried to reorganize revolutionary movement by naming it the nationalist party. head of nationalist party which went against mao zedong.
sun yat sen
the day the resistance began. intellecutals and studetns played a leading role. there were many movements of the chinese protesting the japanese new lands in china. went from protests to boycotts of japanese goods. initially aimed at transforming china into a liberal democracy.
may fourth movement
found li dazhou's ideas interesting. believed in an authhroitatian state with a politcal system like the confucian in which those who goverened were committed to social reform and social welfare. with support from sun yat sen he and his marxist friends started socialist youth corps.
almost everything he wanted to do depended on peasant support.
wanted social reforms that were going to help the poor peasants and oppressed workers. they wanted to rid china of the warlord menance and unify china. unfortunately for most poor chinese people who needed the reforms the party was too focused on political and internationalist issues with the west and japan so many of the reforms never happened.eventually sun forged an alliance with the communists.needed help and turned to soviet union.
when chinese turned to soviet russia for help russia offered its support in many ways. for example it built a military academy for nationalists. the first leader of the academy was chiang. not happy with the communist alliance, worked his way into sun yat's inner circle. got control of the party after sun's death. eventually nationalist party gained ground and he became master of china. killed many communist supporters after they would help him agaisnt the warlords. led to an open civil war between nationalists and communists.communists won. but yet still didn't come into power
chiang kai shek
internal china was decaying. china's leaders heard their crying but bickered and plotted but did little. sun's ignorance shown when he said china had no landlords that expoited the peasants.
through all the problems with outsiders and getting enough support for the communist party...
to help out the tens of thousands of villages in poverty.
communists went about trying..
became clear the chiang was very strong and if the communists didn't break away from nationalist encirclement they would be eliminated so mao led the long march thousands of miles until they reached peasant soviets. at the end of it mao was established the head of the communist party. chinag fought on agaisnt them and it seemed he had the upper hand.
he'd been focusing too much on the communists and this had left the borders weak and japan invaded. forced to make a military alliance with the communists.war with japan took priority over civil war with communists.japanese invasion vital to communists takeover.
why the power chiang had after long march failed
communists fought war better than chiang. chinag made to look weak to the people because he could not fight the japanese well. communists won a lot of support through this and took over many coastal citites that were vital. chiang fled to taiwan and mao created the people's republic of china.
war with japan
unlike bolsheviks who easily gained power and dealt with year of war and problems the chinese dealt with issues beforehand and then once winners the moved straight to the social and economic reforms easily and automatically already had a unified china.
people's liberation army, played roles in korea and vietnam with communists versus republicans. close relations with soviet union broke down. had first nucleur device. brief war in india over border dispute, india was defeated by china. took out landlords who had oppressed the peasants. land taken from landlord class was given to peasants. however after this communist leaders wanted rapid industrialization and they turned away from the peasantry to the urban workers. mao however clung to his faith in the peasants not the workers. supporting women and women's issues was important to him.
specifically mao's china
began with the formation of agricultural cooperatives, cooperatives became farming collectives. the peasants had barely gotten to enjoy their own land. they took it away from them throught collectivization
mass line approach
struck at intellectuals with "let a thousand flowers bloom" and he encouraged them to speak out on things like communist rule.
after mass line approach mao..
trying to restore it's mass rural base. industrialization pushed not in factories in cities but through projects in rural areas. led to economic disaster along with collectivization. worst famine of communist era spread quickly.
great leap forward
china hada a crazy birthrate because they wouldn't allow birth control. set up nationwide familiy plannign campaign (only can have one child)
came to power during the crisis with great leap forward, pop;ulatiton, and collectivization. tried to scale back on all of this. mao was no longer head of state during this but he was still head of the communist party. (one of the pragmatists) after drama with mao he opened to china to western influences, encouraged private owning for peasants, experiments with capitalism.
response to deng. got the support of students, peasants, and military. they were waving little red books of mao's thoughts on everything. deng was imprisoned. threatened to return china to the chaos it was before so mao was forced to call of the campaign. maos opposers like deng rose again and their was fighting in the leaders of the government for control of china.
mean't to erase all westernized influenced intelegista. put lawyers, doctors, musicans on collective farms. symbol was little red book.
prep book cultural revolution
communes created to rapidly move to a marxist state. communes couldn't reach ridiculously high quotas...led to starvation and failure to produce results in agriculture and industry.
great leap forward
collectivized agriculture and industry, sweeping social reforms
prep book mao's china
by funding the KMT against japanese invasion
during WWII the US helped china
before communists revolution china had strict class structures but after all traces of a class based system erased.
prep book communist revolution in china
one million demonstrators called for democractic reform government sent troops and open fired, hundreds were killed.
tiananmen square massacre
education reforms and restructuring the economy with slight capitalism, government still communist.
prep book deng xiaoping