guild that had the sole right to trade in a city
guild that controlled the training of skilled workers
first step in becoming a guild member; lived with his master; was not paid; training could take five to nine years
second step in becoming a guild member; skilled worker who was paid wages by a master
class made up by the towns' guild members (merchants and master workers)
disease that swept throughout Europe
people with little education spoke this
traveling singers who wrote poems about love and chivalry
Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer
two great medieval vernacular writers during the Middle Ages
writer who wrote his poems using the Tuscan form of Italian; "father of the Italian language"
writer who had great influence on literary styles and approaches; served as a diplomat
attempt to bring together faith and reason
important philosopher of scholasticism; taught in Paris in the 1100s
the greatest medieval philosopher; monk of the Dominican order
new style of church architecture during the mid 1100s developed by master builders; not well liked
Hundred Years' War
series of conflicts between England and France from 1337 to 1453
claimed the French throne after the last male member of France's Capetian dynasty died
chosen by the French assembly to be French king instead of Edward III
Edward III and Philip VI
Which two people started the Hundred Years' War?
bow that could fire arrows quickly, hitting targets up to 200 yards away
War of the Roses
war for England's throne that began in 1453
York and Lancaster families
Which two families started the War of the Roses?
badge of the House of York
badge of the House of Lancaster
won the War of the Roses; part of the House of Lancaster; defeated King Richard III of York
Joan of Arc
young girl who helped Charles VII get crowned king of France
followed Charles VII as king of France; France became united under this ruler
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spain became united under these two rulers
last stronghold of the Moors in Spain
family that ruled a small state; weak; had little land
Habsburg emperor who followed his family's strategy of marriage and conquest to add to its power and wealth
military campaign to drive out all the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula
Jews who were forced to either leave Spain or to become Christian
Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV
Who was the pope and monarch who had a conflict that arose in 1294?
time period where the six popes after Clement V reside in Avignon, France
period of church history where there was two, maybe even three popes
priest and teacher at Oxford University; accused for being a heretic; was not executed
religious reformer and teacher at the University of Prague; criticized abuses in the church; was excommunicated; was named a heretic; was burned at stake
Council of Constance
declared Jan Hus as a heretic and ordered his death
French bishop who Philip IV made sure was elected pope after Boniface died; moved the papacy to Avignon, France
Pope Boniface VIII
angered when Philip IV wants to tax French clergy; issued a decree declaring that the pope has chief control both spiritually and politically; arrested by Philip IV
wanted to tax French clergy in order to increase his wealth/power and to decrease the Church's power; arrested Pope Boniface VIII on charges of heresy
decree made by Pope Boniface VIII; declared that the pope has chief control both spiritually and politically
called on by Philip IV for support against Boniface
College of Cardinals
What is the group that Philip IV takes over in order to ensure that a French pope is elected after Boniface dies?
College of Cardinals
group made up of the electors of the Pope
Which language remained the written and spoken language of educated people in western Europe after the Roman Empire collapsed?
Who wrote The Divine Comedy?
Who wrote The Canterbury Tales?
What was the guild called that teachers and students formed to protect and gain rights for themselves?
Who wrote Summa Theologiae?
Who wrote a book called Sic et Non?
one hundred years
About how long did the construction of the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris last?
Germany and Italy
Which two nations made up the Holy Roman Empire?
Emperor Charles IV
Which emperor issues a decree in 1356 ruling that only seven electors would choose the emperor
freedom, exemption, town justice, and commercial privileges
what were the four basic rights gained by townspeople throughout Europe?
Henry Tudor; House of Lancaster
Which ruler won the War of the Roses; which family won?