Father of genetics. Experimented with pea plants and discovered law of dominance, ind. assortment, and segregation.
The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of microevolutionary changes in populations.
a comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin's ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
Hardy Weinberg Theorem
An axiom maintaining that the sexual shuffling of genes alone cannot alter the overall genetic makeup of a population.
Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
condition that occurs when the frequency of alleles in a particular gene pool remain constant over time
Hardy Weinberg equation
helps calculate frequencies of alleles in a population; pp+2pq+qq; p is the dominant allele; q is the recessive allele
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool isn't reflective of the source population
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
(biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences)
measures the average percentage of gene loci that are heterozygous
comparing the nucleotide sequences of DNA samples from two individuals then pooling the data from many such comparisons of two individuals
Differences between the gene pools of separate populations or population subgroups.
a graded change in a character along a geographic axis
The state or condition of being diploid (having each chromosome in two copies per nucleus or cell)
The ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population.
a decline in the reproductive success of individuals that have a phenotype that has become too common in a population
Genetic diversity that confers no apparent selective advantage.
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals.
The contribution of one genotype to the next generation compared to that of alternative genotypes for the same locus.
form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
Natural selection that favors extreme over intermediate phenotypes.
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
A direct competition among individuals of one sex (usually the males in vertebrates) for mates of the opposite sex.
Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice.