Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
central business district (CBD)
The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
A community's collection of basic industries.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
market area (or hinterland)
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
primate city rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Services that primarily help people conduct business
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range (of a service)
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and turns money to those who provide it
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
transportation and information services
Services that diffuse and distribute services
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
council of government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
rush (or peak) hour
The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland