HIstory and Approaches RM

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empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

level of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

biological psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

evolutionary psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

psychodynamic psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin

social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

developmental psychology

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

personality psychology

the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

human factors psychology

the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

Introspection

a method of exploring conscious mental processes adopted by the Structuralists; subjects were asked to look inward and report their sensations and perceptions.

Population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes.

Scientific Method

a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized.

Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elements of the human mind.

Behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

Cognitive Psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Gestalt Psychology

an organized whole. Emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

Evolutionary Psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.

Psychobiology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.

Humanistic Psychology

a psychological viewpoint emphasizing that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her fortune, considerable capacity for achieving personal growth, intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment.

Sociocultural Psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

Psychodynamic Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

Developmental Psychology

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.

Personality Psychology

the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Social Psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Mary Whiton Calkins

first woman president of APA; Denied her doctorate from Harvard.

Charles Darwin

Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest—origin of species.

Dorothea Dix

created the first American mental institutions.

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious—Id, Ego, & Superego

G. Stanley Hall

founded the American Journal of Psychology.

William James

wrote "Principles of Psychology" and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline; regarded consciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations.

Ivan Pavlov

known for discovering classical conditioning—An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog salivation, etc.

Jean Piaget

Four-stage theory of cognitive development. 1. Sensorimotor, 2. Preoperational, 3. Concrete Operational, & 4. Formal Operational. He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth: assimilation & accommodation.

Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychology—the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth.

BF Skinner

operant conditioning—techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior.

Margaret Floy Washburn

first woman granted a PhD in Psychology.

John B. Watson

founded Behaviorism

Wilhelm Wundt

introspection—psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience; father of psychology.

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