define a sympathomimetic drug
Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, such as catecholamines, epinephrine...
describe clinical uses of digitalis
Digitalis medication works directly on the heart muscle to strengthen and regulate the heartbeat. It is used to treat certain heart conditions
what is spirometry
technique used to analyze lung function
patient breathes into airflow transducer which measures volumes of air moved in and out of lungs under different conditions. Abnormal results of spirometry graph will indicated disease in the lungs and or cardiovascular system
Residual Volume (RV)? Can we measure RV in lab?
vol. of gas remaining in lungs at end of max. expiration
cannot measure RV in lab because patient has to continue breathing
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
vol of air that can normally be maximally (expired) exhaled at end of TV
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1)
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
FEV1 = amount of exhaled air at first second
FVC = amt of inhalation of deep breath
What values influence VC
height, weight, age, gender, race,
type of breaths taken = normal vs. deep breaths
result of impaired respiration (hypoventialtion)
leads to accumulation of too much CO2 in blood
causes: airway obstruction, depression of respiratory center in the brain, lung disease, drug overdose
increase CO2, increase H+ ions, decrease pH
condition of too little carbon dioxide in the blood (hyperventilation)
result of traveling to high altitudes (air has less oxygen) or hyperventilation(caused by fever or anxiety)
decrease CO2, decrease H+ ions, increase pH
causes respiratory acidosis
increase resp rate with no metabolism
too little carbon dioxide in the blood
causes respriatory alkalosis
decrease alveolar ventilation (shallow breathing) or imparied respiration
what is the body's two major buffering systems
(1) renal system - slower (hours to days to work)
(2) respiratory system - works within minutes, but cannot handle pH change renal system can
****both systems help regulate body pH by controlling output of acids, bases, and CO2
A hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases.
Hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17µmol/L). A concentration higher than 1.8 mg/dL (>30µmol/L) leads to jaundice.[2
is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood).
stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled or produced in normal metabolism. Large quantities of it hinder delivery of oxygen to the body
is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhemoglobin.
Methemoglobin saturation is expressed as the percentage of hemoglobin in the methemoglobin state; That is MetHb as a proportion of Hb.
Less than 10% metHb - No symptoms
10-20% metHb - Skin discoloration only (most notably on mucus membranes)
20-30% metHb - Anxiety, headache, dyspnea on exertion
30-50% metHb - Fatigue, confusion, dizziness, tachypnea, palpitations
50-70% metHb - Coma, seizures, arrhythmias, acidosis
Greater than 70% metHb - Death
Gas X makes up 15% of a gas mix, at 760 mmHg, the partial pressure of Gas X would be?
Px = (.15) x (760 mmHg) = 114 mmHg
Frank Staling Law of the heart
as preload increase the SV increases
therefore SV is directly proportional to preload (EDV)
SV is inversely proportional to
total perpheral resistance;
therefore, the greater the peripheral resistance, the lower the SV
ADH secretion is stimulated when osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect
an increase in blood osmolality
hydrostatic pressure is 34 mmHg or higher at the arterial end of a capillary
hydrostatice pressure is 17mmHg or lower at the venous end