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Absolutism in Europe

Hapsburg Family

Who ruled Austria

Catholic Church and nobility had a lot of power, didn't want to give up any of it, surrounded by France, Prussia who wanted land so Austrian rulers had to make nobles happy, Hungarians were part of Austria and didn't want to do as told by Hapsburgs

Reasons for weak absolute ruler

Joseph II (A)

1765-1790 Co-ruler with mom

Maria Theresa (A)

Co-ruler with son, heard Beethoven play when Beethoven was only 5 years old, cautious ruler

Forced church and nobles to pay higher taxes, reduced taxes for peasants, centralized power, allowed only useful monasteries to stay, gave religious freedom to non-Catholics

Joseph II took these steps to solidify power

Changes he made were too drastic, only in power 10 years so they were still seen as "new"

Why did Joseph II's changes not take effect

Church and Nobility regained power after Joseph's death

Why did Austria not become an absolutist nation like most of Europe

Ivan IV (R)

1533-1584 Ruler of Russia, The Terrible, One of first rulers after Russia kicked out Mongols

Expanded territory, built St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, murdered nobility, murdered son, high taxes on people, treated people as slaves, took title of Czar

What did Ivan IV accomplish as king

St. Basil's Cathedral

One of most beautiful cathedrals in the world, architects were blinded by Ivan IV to prevent them building another as beautiful

Nobility fought to control Russia, peasants burned and looted

What happened when Ivan IV died

Romanov Dynasty

Ruling family after Ivan IV, ruled from 1613 until Communists took over in 1917

Peter I (R)

1682-1725 On of strongest and best rulers, began modernization of Russia, traveled in Europe as a commoner to learn

Revolt among palace guards

Why did Peter I return to Russia

Put conspirators in dungeon, torture by roasting slowly with dr to revive them, decapitated in the end

What did Peter I do to guilty guards

over 700 shipbuilders, mathematicians, engineers

Who did Peter I bring with him when he returned to Russia

No more traditional dress or beards, nothing Oriental, adopted western calendar

What steps did Peter I take to Westernize Russia

St. Petersburg

New Capital of Russia under Peter I

needed warm water ports

Why did Peter I want to expand his territory

Great Northern War from 1700-1721

Russia took territory along the Baltic Sea from Sweden and Peter earned title of The Great

Patriarch died and Peter replaced him with the Holy Synod

How did Peter I control the Orthodox Chuch

Alexis Petrovich

Son of Peter I

Vienna

Alexis ran away to what city

Arrested, accused of plotting to kill Peter I, questioned, whipped, whipped again, died

What happened to Alexis when he returned from running away

Peter I

Who was logged in as questioning a prisoner on the day Alexis died?

Catherine II (R)

1762-1796 The Great, ruler of Russia, arrested and killed husband, Empress

Good ruler, immoral, let nobility keep power as long as they did as she wanted but let them send people to Siberia, crushed revolting peasants, invited intellectuals from the Enlightenment to Russia, supported education and social reform, finished Westernization of Russia, took property from Orthodox Church

How did Catherine II gain more power

more sea ports

Why did Catherine II take territory from the Poles and Turks

North shore of Black Sea

Where did Catherine II gain territory

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