4 - Realism and Materialism

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AP European History Exam Review

Utopian socialists

Charles Fourier, Robert Owen

Anarchists

Pierre Proudhon

Louis Blanc

A socialist who was an advocate of National Workshops

Berlin Assembly

(also Prussian assembly) which was announced by Frederick William IV that a constitution would also be developed and that internal reforms would be instituted, and that Prussia would assist in the development of a constitutional revitalization of the German Confederation

Frankfurt Assembly

Pan-German assembly interested in the formulation of an integrated union of German states.

Kleindeutsch

Small Germany

Grossdeutsch

Great Germany

Ferdinand I

Austrian Emperor, acquiesced and granted concessions incl. a pledge to support the development of a constitution and the extension of individual liberties.

Hungarian Diet

Declared a constitution which established a national assembly based on a limited franchise, specified individual freedoms,eliminated the remnants of feudal order, and established an autonomous Hungary within the Austrian Empire.

April Decree

Issued by Hapsburg government, pledged to elimnate the feudal services and duties which were still imposed on the peasants.

Cavour

Sardinian who served as editor of Il Risorgimento (Newspaper arguing Sardinia should be the basis of a new Italy)

Crimean War

Sardinia joined Britain and France in the ______ against Russia. Dispute between two differing groups of Christians over privileges in the Holy Land.

Plombieres Agreement

In the event that Sardinia went to war with Austria, France would provide military assistance to Sardinia.

Peace of Paris

Russia had to acknowledge international commissions which were to regulate maritime traffic on the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, agree not tofortify the Aaland Islands, renounce its previously epoused position of protector to the Greek Orthodox residents of Ottoman Empire, and return occupied territories to the Ottomans.

Disraeli

British Prime Minister. Denounced the San Stephano Accord, dispatched a naval squadron to Turkish waters, and demanded that the San Stephano agreement be scrapped. Concluded series of secret arrangements with Austria, Russia, and Turkey.

Syndicalism

Developed by Georges Sorel. This is referred to as anarcho-syndicalism, which involved direct economic actions in order to control industries.

Gladstone

Initially a Conservative, emerged as a severe critic of the Corn Laws and, as a budgetary expert, became Chancellor of the Exchequer under Palmerston. Supported Irish home rule, fiscal responsibility, free trade, and extension of democratic principles. Advanced Reform Bill of 1867.

Alexander II

Instituted a series of reforms which contributed to altering the nature of the social contract in Russia. He indicated Russian serfdom had to be eliminated. Serfs no longer dependent on lord, all people were to have freedom of movement, and serf could enter into contracts and own property

zemstvos

Assemblies which administered the local areas, through them the Russian rural nobility retained control over politics

Lenin

Became the leader of the Bolsheviks (a splinter group of the Social Democrats).

Bloody Sunday

A group under the leadership of the radical priest Gapon marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to submit a list of grievances to the czar; troops fired on the demonstrators and this was known as ________

Suez Canal

British acquired _______. Britain established themselves as an African power.

Berlin Conference

Specified 1) Congo would be under control of Belgium, 2) more liberal use of Niger and Conger rivers, 3) European powers could acquire African territory through first occupation and secondly notifying the other European states of their occupation and claim

Boer War

British and Boers fought a war which was costly to both sides. Boers under the leadership of Paul Kruger. restricted political and economic rights of British settlers and developed alternative railroads throughout Mozambique.

American Open Door Policy

Recognized independence and integrity of China and provided economic access for all power

Reichstag

Lower body which represented the nation in Germany

Kulturkampf

Bismarck's anti-Catholic ______ wasn't successful

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Fabians

Argued for evolutionary political transformation which would result in full political democracy and economic socialism.

Labor Party

Attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought that the conservative and liberal parties had no genuine interest in the needs of the general public

Dreyfus Affair

A Jew who was charged, tried, and convicted. It was a scandal that broke when it was revealed that classified information had been provided to German spies. Demonstrated anti-Semitism in France, level of corruption in French army, and willingness of catholic church and the monarchists to join in on a conspiracy against an innocent man

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