History of Ancient Near East

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Ahmose

(1570-1532)
Became Pharaoh after his brothers death
Laid siege against Avaris (Hyksos)
Stele was set up in Karnak to commemorate exploits
Married to Ahmose-Nefertari
Favored god Amun (Ra) [Creator God]
Posthumous funerary cult
Burried at Dra Abu el-Naga

Amenhotep I

(1553-1532)
Mother was Nefertari (served as co-regent)
Married sister Ahhotep II
Built Karnak
Earliest known water clock was invented by Amenemhat
Burried at The Valley of the Kings

Tuthmosis I

(1532-1512)
Aquired throne by marrying Amenhotep's sister Ahmes or Ahmose
Was a strong military commander of Amenhoptep
Buried at "The Valley of the Kings"
Had Tuthmosis II through his concubine Mutnofret

Tuthmosis II

(1512-1503)
Married Hatshepsut his half sister
One military campaign against Asiatics
Added a shrine to Karnak complex
Died at age 30, Buried at "V of the K"
Had Thutmosis III through his concubine Isis

Hatshepsut

(1503-1482)
Rules Egypt with Thutmosis III
Proclaimed herself as King after two years
Built a small chapel within her temple for her father
Continued exploitation of Sinai for copper
Built her funerary temple in Deir el-Bahri (built by Senenmut)
Built at Karnak
Obelisk were quarried at Aswan

Tuthmosis III

(1482-1450)
Erased all memory of Hatshepsut
Blocked her obelisk at Karnak
In 30 years, he had 17 campaigns
Built at Karnak Temple complex
Temple witness five stage conflict with Mitanni
Buried at the Valley of the Kings

Amenhotep II

(1450-1425)
Was known for his unusual physical strength
Several campaigns in Canaan
(3rd yr) captured 7 princes of Canaan and brought them to Egypt
Campaigned a few more times
Brought 90,000 slaves
Buried at the Valley of the Kings

Tuthmosis IV

(1425-1416)
Reigned for 9 years
Received vision on Giza plateau to uncover a sphinx, as his reward he became Pharaoh
Erected stele at Giza to commemorate event
Venerated Memphite gods
Died at age 30

Amenhotep III

(1416-1379)
Son of Thutmosis IV and Mutemwia
Pharoah at age 12
Married Tiy at age 14
Dedicated 600 statues to Sekhmet due to sickness
Great influence through NE
Peace and Prosperity

Amenhoptep IV/ Akhenaten

(1379-1361)
Crown at Karnak
Married his cousin Nefertiti
During 2nd year replaced Amun-Re with Aten
4th yr visited Akhetatan for new capital site
Capitol was moved to Memphis
Buried at Amarna

Smenkhkare

(1359-1350)
Continued tradition of Amarna
Died at age 20
Buried at Amarna

Tuthankamun

(1359-1350)
Married Ankhesenpaaten
Became Pharaoh at nine years old
Started reign in Akhetaten
Returned for old religion
Started mortuary temple at Medinet Habu
Continued work on Karnak
Constructed second pair of lions at Soleb (Did not set the lions)
Hittites took Qadesh and Amki
Died at 19

Ay

(1350-1347)
Rule a short while
Seen on wall of Tutankhamun's tomb reserved for a successor

Horemheb

(1347-1320)
Military leader since Tutankhamun
Qadesh and Amki were returned to him by Hittites
Continued to restore religion of sun god
Built Medinet Habu
Burried at Valley of Kings

Ramesses I

(1320-1319)
Royal commander who trained in military
Placed as Pharaoh by Horemheb
Promoted Heliopolitan religion
Shifted power from Thebes to Memphis
Did some work at Karnak
Erected chapel at Abydos (Osiris is god of dead)
Buried at Valley of the Kings

Seti I

(1319-1304)
Rewrote history
Tried to re-establish policies in Canaan
Fought against Shasu bedouin (Edomites)
Captured Gaza by dividing army into three divisions (Ra, Amum, Seth)
March against Qadesh
After Syria-Palestine was pacified, marched against Libya
After 4 campaigns Egypt was respected again
Buried at Valley of the Kings
Tomb has some of the most complete funerary texts
Built his mortuary temple at Abydos

Ramesses II

(1304-1237)
Best known Pharoah
Defeated Sherdon pirates during second year
Campaigned against Syria in 4th year
Campaigned against Qadesh, battle ended in peace
During 8th year he marched toward Qadesh again
Suppressed rebelion in Edon and Moab
Long reign created succession problems

Merneptah

(1237-1227)
Able to conquer Philistines

Tetisheri

Object of Posthumous funerary cult
Ahmose's grandmother
Played an important role in creating the dynasty
She was still alive when her grandson became Pharoah

Ahhotep I

Second woman in Posthumous funerary cult
Ahmose's mother
She might have been co-regent with Ahmose

Ahmose - Nefertari

Third woman in Posthumous funerary cult
Outlived Ahmose
Received endowment "Doman of the God's wife"
Tile was recorded in "Stele of Donations"

Senenmut

Accredited for building Hatshepsut's temple in Deir el-Bahri
Personal nurse for Neferure
Became queen spokesman
Dissapeared from all texts towards the end of Hatshepsut's reign

Neferure

Personal nurse was Senenmut
Wife of Thutmosis III
Mother of Amenhotep

Yuya

Mother of Tiy

Tuya

Father of Tiy

Tiy

Wife of Amenhotep III
Daughter of Tuya and Yuya
Outlived her husband
Bore husband 6 children (2 sons, 2 girls)
Second son inherited Throne
Lived through first 8 years of sons reign
Stood ad the personification of Maat
Brought to her son's residence in Amarna

Nefertiti

Cousin and wife of Amenhotep IV
Daughter of Ay

Ankhesanamun

Wife of Ay
Was not seen after her marriage

Suppiluliumas

Delegation was sent by Ankhesanamun so send a son for the throne
Sent his son Prince Sennanza

Sennanza

Son of Suppiluliumas
Killed in journey to Eypt to marry Ankhesanamun

New Kingdom

Another name for 18th Dynastry

18th Dynasty

(1570-1320)
Ahmose
Amenhotep
Thutmosis
Hatshepset
Thutmosis III
Amenhotep II
Thutmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Amenhotep IV
Smenkhkare
Tutankhamun
Horemheb

19th Dynasty

(1320-1213)
Ramesses I
Seti I
Ramesses II
Merneptah
Amenmesse
Seti II
Siptah
Tworse

Merneptah stele

Only Egyptian document that mentioning Isrir or Israel
Describes the victory over the Canaanites and Philistines (Sea People)

Avaris

Hyksos gained control as early as 1730 or 1720 BC
Capital of Hyksos
Accepted Seth as main deity
Fell in 1570 and Hyksos were expelled
Was laid siege by Ahmose

Abydos

Location of many temples
Ramesses I erected chapel here
Seti's mortuary temple is located here

Thebes

Ta'a I became pharaoh here

The Valley of the Kings

Burial place of Pharoahs
Smenkhkare
Horemheb
Amenhotep I, II
Thutmosis I, II, III
Hatshepsut
Ramessess I, II
Seti I
Siptah

Karnak

Place where Amenhotep was crowned
Ahmose's stele was set up here
Main place of worship for 18th Dynasty
Temple complex

Mitanni

Made alliance with Egypt in order to protect themselves from Hittites

Hittites

Took Qadesh and Amki after the assassination of Sennanza

Sphinx

Showed vision to Thutmosis IV

Amarna

379 clay tablets were discovered here reflecting the relationship with NE

Akhetaten

Capital city built by Akhenaten but abandoned later

Aten

god that was available to common man
Replaced Amun-Re during Amenhotep's IV reign

Shasu

Seti I fought against them
Was also attacked by Ramesses II

Muwatalis

King of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire

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