Anatomy of Neurology

142 terms by CBerkemeier 

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neuron

functional and communicating unit of the nervous system

glial cells

supportive cell of the nervous system

soma

cell body of the neuron

axon

long part of the neuron, transmits information away

dendrite

branches of neuron, transmits information into the cell

axon hillock

where the axon meets the body of the neuron

myelin sheath

fatty layers of the neuron that wrap around the axon

oligodendrocytes

makes up the myelin sheath, part of the central nervous system

Schwann cells

make up the myelin sheath, part of the peripheral nervous system

nodes of ranvier

constriction in the axon

telodendria

end of the dendrites, root-looking things

saltatory conduction

jumps from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites of another

synaptic vesicles

contain neurotransmitters which jump from the synaptic boutons across the synaptic cleft during saltatory conduction

synaptic cleft

space between the boutons across which the synaptic vesicles jump

synaptic boutons (knobs)

where the neurotransmitters are stored, end of the synapse

neurotransmitters

store information that is relayed in synapse

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter found in CNS and PNS in humans

peripheral nervous system

includes cranial and spinal nerves, sensory receptors autonomic nervous system

central nervous system

includes the brain and spinal chord

autonomic nervous system

controls the internal environment of the bod, is self regulating; includes the sypmathetic system (fight or flight) and the parasympathetic system

sympathetic system

(or thoracolumbar) the "fight of flight" instinct; increases heart rate vasoconstriction (blood vessels), dilates pupils, surges adrenaline

Parasympathetic system

(or craniosacral) relaxes the body, lowers heart rate and blood pressure

afferent neurons

"arriving" conduct toward the central nervous system (ascending, often to sensory nerons)

efferent neurons

"exiting" conducting away from the central nervous system (descending and often motor)

cranial nerves

On, on, on they traveled and found Voldemort guarding very ancient horcruxes

spinal nerves

31 pairs of spinal nerves, numbered C1-C8, T1-T12, L1-5, S1-S5 C1

conus medullaris

at L3 at birth, adults at L1, terminal end of the spinal chord

filum termina

delicate strand of fibrous tissue,downward from the apex of the conus medullaris, gives longitudinal support to the spinal cord, made up of cauda equina

cauda equina

"horse tail" end of the filum termina, bundle of nerves that fill the spinal column below the spinal chord

cervical enlargement

bulge in the spinal chord that goes to the arms from C3-T2

Lumbar enlargement

bulge in the spinal chord that goes to the legs from T9-T12

dorsal horn

gray matter, forms the back part of the
"H'

ventral horn

gray matter, forms the front part of the "H"

gray matter

made up of cell bodies and dendrites

white matter

made up of myelin and axons

dorsolateral sulcus

attachment of the dorsal root fibers (side, back)

ventrolateral sulcus

attachment of the ventral root (side, front)

dorsal root

nerves that come out of the back of the spinal chord

ventral root

nerves that come out of the front of the spinal chord

central canal

middle of the spinal column

dorsal ramus

where the dorsal root breaks off into a "Y"

ventral ramus

where the ventral root breaks off into a "Y"

dorsal root ganglion

bulby thing on the end of dorsal root

sensory neurons

transmit information from the body to the brain located in the dorsal root ganglia, have sensory ending which is sensitive to physical or chemical stimuli and they synapse in the spinal cord on a motor neuron or interneuron

posterior median sulcus

shallow groove at the back of the spinal column

motor neurons

efferent neurons which activate muscles of glands to produce some response

spinal reflex arc (Stretch reflex)

reflex that occurs with kneetap, simplest stimulus response system of the nervous system

nucleus

group of neuron cell bodies within the CNS

ganglion

mass of cell bodies outside the CNS

Tract

bundle of nerve fiber axons within the CNS, with functional and anatomical unity

Nerves

bundle of nerve fiber axons outside of the CNS

Interneurons

(most of the nerves in the body), only found in the CNS, interconnect other neurons

lower motor neurons

efferent neurons whose cell body lies within the spinal chord

upper motor neurons

efferent fibers whose cell bodies are in teh upper brain levels and whose axons make up the descending pathways through the spinal cord

polysynaptic reflex

"stop extending, withdraw" extensors, flexor reflex

flaccid paralysis

muscle weakness and paralysis, lower reflexes

muscle etrophy

muscle weakness, deterioration

spastic paralysis

Muscle tightness or stiffness

funiculi

an antatomical division of a large column of white matter

Fasciculi

tracts of white matter

ipsilateral

all on one side of the body

contralateral

tract that crosses over

dura mater

outermost layer of the connective matter around the brain, very tough

arachnoid

second layer of connective matter around the brain, delicate web-like

pia mater

innermost layer of connective matter around the brain, "gentle mother" delicate, vascular

meningitis

inflammation of the meningeal linings

meningeal linings

the connective layers around the brain

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid which "bathes" the brain, acts as a cushion and brings nutrients and removes waster from the brain tissue

choroid plexus

produces cerebrospinal fluid, inside the linings of the vetricles

hydrocephalus

excess of CSF

medulla oblongata

inferior-most segment of the brainstem, contains pyramids, olives, etc. ; cardiac center, vasocontrictor, respiratory center

shunt

created passageway (tube) to connect ventricles to different paths to drain excess fluid

brainstem

made up of the medulla oblongata, the Pons, and the midbrain

pons

"Bridge", holds centers associates with chewing, salivating, eye movements, hearing, and facial expression

Midbrain

holds cerebral peduncles, superior (visual reflexes) and inferior (auditory reflexes) colliculi

thalamus

center of the brain, collection of nuclei

Functions of the thalamus

-relay point for all sensory info except smell
-where you begin to perceive pain and temperature (not localized)
-maintains cortical activity for sleep, waking, and arousal
-Imparting pleasantness or noxiousness to sensations (on a low, primal level)

hypothalamus

fibrous material below the thalamus

functions of the hypothalamus

Regulates:
- metabolism, water balance
-autonomic nervous system
-expression of emotions
-sleeping, waking
-body temperature
-food intake
sex behavior

basal ganglia

made up of gray matter, Contains the Striate bodies and Internal Capsule, sit superiorly, laterally to the thalamus

Functions of the Basal Ganglia

-regulates complex motormovements such as posture, locomotion, balance, arm swinging while walking
-coordinating muscle groups
-decrease muscle tone (rigidity)

Substantia nigra

contains melanin, produces dopamine (destroyed with Parkinson's disease)

corpus striatum

the inside of the basal ganglia, contains caudate and lentiform nuclei

caudate nucleus

outside of the lentiform nucleus inside the basal ganglia

globus pallidus

lighter part of the lentiform nucleus

putamen

darker part of the lentiform nucleus

Parkinson's disease

disease that effects the sustantia nigra, basal ganglia, characterized by rigidity to muscle tone, resting tremor shuffling gait and "pill rolling" tendencies

Chorea

Damage to the basal ganglia characterized by involuntary movement, sudden, jerky, purposeless movements

limbic system

Primative part of the brain that is related to cravings and addictions

major components of the limbic system

-hippocampus
-fornix
-cingulate gyrus
-mammillary bodies
-amgdala
-uncus
-olfactory bulbs

Functions of the limbic system

-temperature regulation
-feeding
-anger
-sexual functions

hippocampus

part of the limbic system related to memory and Alzheimer's disease

white matter of the cerebrum

include projection fibers, association fibers, commissural fibers

projection fibers

connect cortex with distant location outside of the cortex

types of projection fibers

corono radiata, internal capsule

association fibers

interconnect regions of the same hemisphere

types of association fibers

short fibers, long fibers (uncinate fasciculus, arcuate fascicuus, cingulum)

commissural fibers

connect location in one hemisphere with the corresponding location in the other

types of commissural fibers

corpus callosum, anterior commissure

gyri

the folds or convolutions of the cerebral cortex

sulci

the intervening grooves between the gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

fissure

cleft that separates large components of the brain

frontal lobe

1/4 of the cortex, biggest lobe of the brain, bounded posteriorly by central suclus, contains Broca's area

Parietal Lobe

Contains post central angular gyrus, center for comprehension of written material

Temporal lobe

Promary auditory area of the brain, contains Wernicke's Area

occipital lobe

Primary visual area of the brain

insular lobe

another name for the island or reil which contains the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus

Broca's Area

area in the frontal lobe which is important for planning and initiating higher level thinking

Wernicke's Area

area in the temporal lobe that is important for the comprehension of speech

Gall phrenology

the theory that personality, characteristics can be distinguished based on the bumps on the brain

Motor area

cortex that focuses mainly on the mouth and hand

Sensory cortex

cortex that focuses mainly on the head and hand

ions

atoms that have eithe lost or gained and electron

concentration gradient

a difference in the concentration of molecules on one side of a membrane from the concentration on the other side

permeability

the ease with which ions may pass though a membrane

passive mechanism

diffusion according to the concentration gradient

active mechanisms

ion pumps will move Na and K ions agianst the concetration gradient using energy

Sodium potassium pump

ions pumps using active mechanisms with energy from ATP (adenosine Triphosphate) to move Na and K ions against the concentration gradient

action potential

a change in electrical potential that occurs when the cell membrane is stimulated adequately to permit ion exchange

threshold level

a critical level which, if reached, will produce a sudden change in the membrane polarity for Na+ ions

depolarization

when the critical threshold level is reached and the Na+ ions flood in and raise the intercellular potential to +30 to +50 mV

resting potential

30 times as many K+ ions inside as outside and 10 times as many Na+ ions outside as inside

absolute refractory period

the 1/2 of a second when the membrane cannot be depolarized again

Repolarization

K+ channels open up and K+ is going out of the intracellular space

relative refractory period

the interval immediately following absolute refractory period during which initiation of a second action potential is inhibited but not impossible.

dysarthria

a speech disorder arising from paralysis, muscular weakness, and discoordination of speech musculature

flaccid dysarthria

muscular weakness and hypertontia arising from LMN (lower motor neuron)damage

spastic dysarthria

inability to execute skilled movements and muscle weakness brought about by bilateral damage to UMN (Upper motor neuron) of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways

ataxia dysarthria

damage to cerebellum or the brainstem vestibular nuclei causes loss of coordination and problems in reaching articulatory targets

hyperkinetic dysarthria

extraneous involuntary movement of speech muscles in addition to voluntary movement

hypokinetic dysarthria

lack of movement often caused by Parkinson's speech will be rushed with reduced duration and intensity

angular gyrus

in the parietal lobe, superior to temporal lobe, involved in a number of processes related to language, mathematics and cognition

Broca's aphasia

disfluent aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia

fluent aphasia

apraxia

deficit in the motor programming of articulatory movements in the absence of muscular weakness or paralysis

conduction aphasia

good comprehension of speech and writing and fairy fluent speech but cannot repeat utterances which are heard

Dorsal funiculus

made up of fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus

fasciculus gracilis

in legs conveys pressure, vibration, two point touch, kinesthetic proprioception (if you close your eyes, you know where your body is in space)

fasciculus cuneatus

in arms conveys pressure, vibration, two point touch, kinesthetic proprioception (if you close your eyes, you know where your body is in space)

Ventral spinothalamic tract

light touch

Lateral spinothalamic tract

pain, temperature

Dorsal and Ventral spinocerebellar tract

muscle tension, length, and stretch, damage impairs balance, walking

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