_____ demonstrated the transformation principle using heat killed virulent bacteria that conferred its virulence to avirulent bacteria
_______ fractionated out DNA, Protein, and RNA to prove that DNA was the transforming principle.
This picture represents the experiment of ______
Hershey, Chase, T2 bacteriophage
_____ and _____ used the ___ _________ as a model to infect E. coli
Hershey and Chase labeled the T2 bacteriophage protein coat with ___ and the DNA with ____.
DNA __ end has a free phosphate
DNA __ end has a free hydroxyl
Deoxyribose sugar backbone is linked by a _______ bond, double stranded DNA is arranged in an ________ fashon
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
the four DNA bases, ATGC
Adenine and guanine are _____ while tymine, cytosine and uracil are ________
Guanine-cytosine have __ hydrogen bonds.
Adenine-thymine have __ hydrogen bonds.
In the B form of DNA each helical turn contains ___ base pairs.
amino, peptide, carboxy
Polypeptide chains have a positively charged ____ (NH2) terminus, are linked by _____ bonds, and have a negatively charged ______ terminus.
This depicts the _____ and _____ experiment.
the Meselson-Stahl experiment demonstrated the _____ model of replication, using E. coli grown on culture with heavy isotopes of C, N, or H that were then transferred to standard medium for one or two generations.
The Meselson-Stahl experiment separated purified DNA by _____ _________
bacterial chromosomes are circular, have an origin of replication, and DNA synthesis occurs bidirectionally at two ____ _____
5', 3', dNTP
DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA in a __ to ___ direction and add ____ (deoxynucleoside triphosphates) to the growing DNA chain.
As seen in this picture, new dNTPs are added to the growing DNA chain ____ group (3' end) using energy by releasing two ________
DNA synthesis reads a template strand 3' to 5' and requires a _____ to provide a free 3' OH to catalyze the addition of dNTPs
Polymerase III holoenzyme
_______ ____ ________ contains Core enzyme - for synthesis and proofreading, Tau - connects two core enzymes, β clamp - tethers the core enzyme to one strand of DNA, and γ complex - loads the β clamp onto the DNA strand.
Polymerase III holoenzyme
This is a picture of ___________
helicase, single strand binding
At a replication fork, DnaB _____ unwinds the helix as replication proceeds while _____ _____ _____ protein prevents sparated strans from re-annealing.
At a replication fork ______ (gyrase), relieves tension on the unwinding helix of DNA.
the _____ strand synthesis occurs in the same direction as the replication fork continuously, the ______ occurs in the opposite direction of the replication fork, is discontinuous and uses Okazaki fragments.
polymerase I, ligase
On the lagging strand each Okazaki fragment contains a primer and a gap. DNA ______ ___ removes RNA primers and fills the gap left by the primer, DNA _____ links the Okazaki fragments together to form a complete strand.
Replication stops when forks meet a ter (termination) site resulting in two attached chromosomes called ______, linked chromosomes are decatenated by ________
polymerase III, 3', 5'
DNA ________ has a proofreading function that can remove mismatched bases with __to ___ exonuclease activity
DNA mutations (lesions) must be repaired prior to the next round of replication, excision repair is completed by ___ and ____ (Bear don't go ner, excision repair)
_____ repair fixes distortions in the double helix, removes damaged region, and uses the complementary strand as template to repair the gap.
Nucleotide excision repair _____ endonuclease complex detects distortions and removes damaged nucleotides.
In base excision repair, DNA _____ recognize abnormal bases and cleave bond between the sugar back bone and base, AP _______ nicks the sugar backbone at the missing base.
_____ repair corrects errors not detected by Pol III.
Mismatch repair is possible because older DNA is methylated while newer DNA is hemimethylated. _____ Scans newly synthesized DNA for mismatched bases while _____ removes (Hacks) DNA surrounding the error on the unmethylated strand (Hint: the scroungy mutts scan and hack the DNA)
______ repair happens when both strands of DNA are damaged or missing.
_____ protein facilitates recombination with a sister DNA molecule, DNA can then proceed via template-directed repair.
____ important homolog during the elongation of rod-shaped cells, while ____ homolog is important for the division of rod-shaped cells.
____ actin homolog localized in a helical pattern around the circumference of the cell that recruits proteins involved in peptidoglycan synthesis.
___ tubulin homolog that localizes in the middle of the cell (polymerizes the Z-ring), mediated by the ______ complex and recruits peptidoglycan synthesis at the center of the cell where septation occurs.
A discrete set of 3 nucleotides that encode for a specific amino acid
_______ the way in which DNA/mRNA is grouped into codons
the _______ is not transcribed, the mRNA will have a _________ sequence in the leader region before the AUG translation start codon.
____ small RNAs that play a regulatory role in gene transcription.
core enzyme, holoenzyme
RNA polymerase _______ is made of α (x2), β, β', ω, which combines with σ factor to make ______
σ factor recognizes the -35 site (RNA Pol recognition site) and -10 (TATA box, Pribnow box), also called the ______________ in the promoter
The -10 site (Pribnow box, RNA Pol binding site) is unwound to form an _____________, the σ factor is released and the core enzyme continues transcribing
_______ a 16-20 base pair open complex that moves with RNA pol as it transcribes DNA.
___________ a stem loop structure followed by a U-rich sequence termination site (A-U pairing is too weak for the RNA -DNA hybrid to hold and the RNA pol falls off)
_________ termination site that requires ρ that catches up to RNA pol and unwinds the RNA-DNA hybrid.
This picture shows ________________ termination
This picture shows ________________ termination
_________ the three bases on a tRNA that are complementary to a codon on mRNA
In bacteria, transcription and translation are ________, as there is no nuclear envelope separating the two processes. Translation stabilized the mRNA transcript and prevents degradation.
50S, 30S, 70S
The ribosome ___ or large subunit is made of 23S rRNA, 5S rRNA and 34 polypeptides. The ____ or small subunit is made of 16s rRNA and 21 polypeptides. Together they are ____
_______ 1,2,3 are required for translation initiation.
____rRNA (part of the 30s subunit) recognizes the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the mRNA leader and ensures that AUG or GUG encodes for the first amino acid.
After the ____ subunit bind mRNA and fMet-tRNA (in the P site) the ___ subunit is recruited
P, A, E, elongation
During translation elongation, the growing peptide chain is bound to a tRNA at the __ site, a new tRNA binds to the __ site, and the ribosome moves so that the empty tRNA moves to the __ site. This process is aided by ________ factors
_________1, 2, and 3 participate in stop codon recognition for termination of translation. The ribosome stops and dissociates from mRNA and separates into smaller subunits.
_________ help to fold the translated polypeptide into proper shape, requiring ATP. (In E. coli; DnaK&J, GroEL&ES)
heat shock proteins
______________ are chaperones produced at high temperatures to protect the cell from thermal damage.
______ transcriptional control; binging of regulatory inhibits transcription and is mediated by repressor proteins that bind DNA regions called operators, blocking RNA pol from binding to the promoter.
_______ transcriptional control: binding of regulator promotes transcription and is mediated by activator proteins that bind DNA regions called activator binding sites.
________ and ______ are small effector molecules that regulate repressor and activator proteins.
______ a sequence of DNA that contains two or more genes that are co-transcribed from a single promoter.
I, Z, Y, A
The lac repressor Lac_ controls expression of 3 genes: lac_: β-galactosidase, catalyzes breakdown of lactose into glucose + galactose (converts lactose into allolactose), lac_: lactose permease, responsible for lactose uptake, and lac_: β-galactosidase transacetylase, of uncertain function
when no _____ is present in the cell, the lac_____ binds the operator and inhibits transcription.
catabolite activator protein
_________(CAP) regulates the operon based on the amount, of glucose in the environment.
CAP binds _____ that is only synthesized under low glucose conditions, making it active and allowing transcription to occur if lactose is present.
The lac promoter is often used for ______ regulation of genes of interest, gene expression is induced by _____ a lactose analogue that binds to the repressor by is not cleaved by β-galactosidase
The tryp operon is an example of _______ control of ______ genes.
Sensor kinase, response regulator
Two component regulatory systems have _________ a plasma membrane protein exposed to the periplasm that transduces signals via phosphorylation, and a ________ a DNA binding protein that acts as an activator or repressor.
Outer Membrane Porins: _____ is expressed in a more dilute (fluid) environment, _____ is expressed under high osmotiC pressure
____ is the sensor kinase that autophosphorylates under high osmotic pressure to phosphorylate _____ the Response regulator for Outer Membrane Porins
__________ Systems: Regulation of transcription or protein activity by means of transferring phsophates from one protein to another. Two-component systems are a simple type of this system.
_______ small untranslated RNAs that don't code for either tRNA or rRNA (also noncoding RNAs), 40-400 basepairs, more than 40 in E. coli.
intergenic, single, rho-independent, stability
Small RNAs are located in ______ regions, transcribed from ____ gene operons, frequently end with a _______ terminator, and are highly structured to confer ______
_____ regulates expression of other genes by basepairing with other RNA's to either inhibit or activate translation (Often act at the 5' end, around the start codon or Shine-Dalgarno sequence)
Under conditions of oxidative stress ____ represses ____ a transcriptional activator for formate metabolism.
At low temperatures _____ binds ____mRNA to activate its translation.
____encodes for SuperOxide Dismutase, required in high Fe conditions that create oxidative stress, ____ is expressed in low Fe conditions to prevent translation of SuperOxide Dismutatese when its not needed
Many sRNAs bind a protein know as ____ to carry out their functions. (Ex: DsrA, OxyR, RhyB)
____ is a homodexamer, similar to splicing machinery in eukaryotes, involved in RNA splicing. ssRNA binds to the inside of the ring along the top surface.
____ is essential for the action of some sRNAs as its faciliates sRNA and mRNA pairing, protects mRNA from cleavage by RNase E, and because many sRNAs are ___ independent (one answer)